Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums



文 / 卡罗尔·邓肯(Carol Duncan)
译 / 王文婷    校 / 朱橙

 





作为仪式的艺术博物馆

本文将阐述艺术博物馆作为仪式的理念。实际上,艺术博物馆的仪式性质在公共艺术博物馆诞生之初便存在,并常常被视为实现艺术博物馆宗旨的必要手段。

艺术博物馆一直被用来与诸如宫殿或者庙宇之类的古老仪式性纪念建筑相对比。确实,从18世纪到20世纪中期,它们被有意设计为模仿这些古老仪式性纪念建筑的样子。有人或许反驳说,由于我们的社会是世俗的社会,博物馆也是世俗的发明,因此,博物馆对过去建筑的借鉴只具有隐喻意义,而不应被理解为和过去建筑有同样的功能。如果博物馆的立面模仿了庙宇或宫殿,难道这不仅仅是因为现代品味试图模仿这些建筑结构在形式上的平衡与庄重,或者希望将现在对艺术的崇拜和过去的信仰力量联系起来吗?不论它们的建造者(正如反驳意见所言)有何动机,在我们社会的语境里,摆放公共艺术收藏的古希腊神庙和文艺复兴宫殿只能代表世俗价值而非宗教信仰。它们的大门只能通往理性的过往而非神圣的仪式。毕竟,我们的文化是后启蒙时代的文化。在这样的文化里,世俗和宗教属于对立的范畴。

毋庸置疑,我们的文化将教堂、庙宇、清真寺等宗教建筑归为不同于博物馆、法院、国家首都等世俗场所的类别。每一种场所都和一种对立的事实相互联系,并被归入宗教和世俗的二元对立中。这就特别建构了现代公共世界、并且如今看起来这样自然的二分法有其自己的历史。它为启蒙运动打破教会的势力和影响提供了意识形态的基础。到18世纪末,二分法的推广已经成功削弱了宗教教义的权威——至少在西方政治和哲学理论中如此(如果实践中宗教的权威并未被削弱的话)。最终,教会和国家的分离形成了法律。人人都知道后果:世俗的真理成为权威真理;个人尽管有选择宗教信仰的自由,但宗教的权威性只适用于自愿的信徒。世俗真理是理性、可证实的,所以有着“客观”知识的地位。作为真理中的真理,世俗真理有助于通过向社会提供普世知识基础并认可其最高价值和最珍贵的记忆,将一个共同体植入公民整体。艺术博物馆明显属于世俗知识的范畴,不仅因为在艺术博物馆中实践的种种科学和人文主义原则——艺术品保存、艺术史、考古学——而且也因为艺术博物馆享有作为社会官方文化记忆保存者的地位。

在我们文化的世俗或宗教观看来,“仪式”和“博物馆”是对立的。仪式是与包括信仰、魔法、真实或象征性的牺牲、奇迹的转变或者意识的压倒性改变等范畴的宗教活动联系起来的。这些东西和艺术博物馆应该促进的沉思和学习相去甚远。但事实上,在传统社会中,仪式可能是很不引人注意的、非正式的沉思或认知时刻。同时,正如人类学家认为,我们所认为的世俗甚至反仪式的文化充满了仪式性的情景和事件——其中很少的部分(如玛丽·道格拉斯【Mary Douglas】所指出)发生在宗教语境中[1]。也就是说,和其他文化一样,我们也修建一些公开代表有关世界秩序、其过去与未来以及个人在世界秩序中位置的信仰场所。[2]任何种类的博物馆都是这种微宇宙(microcosms)的完美范例;尤其是艺术博物馆——这些场所中最受尊敬和最昂贵的[3]——特别富于这类象征性,并几乎总是想让参观者提供地图来指引其穿过他们所建构的宇宙。一旦我们质疑我们对宗教和世俗经验一分为二的假想——即一个扎根于信仰,而另一个以清晰客观的理性为基础——我们就可能开始瞥见隐藏(更适当的词或许是“伪装”)的世俗典礼(ceremonies)仪式性(ritual)内容。

我们也可以觉察到声称处于客观知识地位的、有关文化经验的意识形态力量。控制一座博物馆明确意味着控制一个社会及其最高价值与真理的代表。它也拥有确立个人在社会中所处地位的权力。那些最懂得“表演”这个仪式——即最会对它的各种线索做出回应——的人,他们的(社会、性别、种族等)身份也会最完满地被博物馆仪式所证明。也正因如此,博物馆和博物馆活动可以成为激烈争斗和热烈辩护的对象。

我们在艺术博物馆里看什么、不看什么——基于什么条件以及因谁的权威使我们看或不看它——和社区由谁建立、社区身份特征由谁确定等大问题有密切联系。

我已提到长久以来,博物馆借用昔日仪式性纪念建筑的形式。当然,当慕尼黑、柏林、伦敦、华盛顿和其他西方首都建造立面类似于古希腊或古罗马神庙的博物馆时,没人会误把它们当作古代建筑物的原型。相反,庙宇的立面——两百年来公共艺术博物馆最流行的建筑灵感源泉[4]——完全被世俗化地解释为一种富于建筑之美、端庄而理性的形式。而且,作为前基督教公民国家的遗留物,古典廊柱、圆形大厅和其他一些古希腊、罗马建筑特征也象征着对启蒙主义价值的坚定支持。然而,同样的仪式性建筑形式也为公共仪式提供了空间——适宜队伍游行的柱廊,适于大型社会集会的大厅,为充满力量的雕像而设计的内部殿堂。

博物馆之所以类似于仪式场所,主要不是因为它们在特定建筑样式上的引用借鉴,而是因为它们也同样是为仪式而布置的。(在此,我对历史延续性不作评论,而只谈类似仪式功能的存在)。正如大多数仪式空间一样,博物馆空间被小心翼翼地划分出来,并在文化意义上被指认保留一种特别的关注——此处具体指沉思与学习。在博物馆中,人们也被期待要举止端庄得体。在赫希洪博物馆(Hirshhorn Museum),一套标识完整地标注了仪式活动及举止要领(图1.3)。博物馆通常由其纪念性的建筑外观和清晰的区域划分,而与其他建筑物分隔开来。它们坐落在层层阶梯之上,由一对对具有纪念碑气势的大理石狮子守卫着。要进入它们就需要穿过宏伟的门道。它们常常距离街面很远,拥有一片供公众使用的公园地。(现代博物馆也同样沾建筑的光,并同样以雕塑作为自身的标识。在美国,罗丹的《巴尔扎克》是最流行的博物馆区域标识物之一,其男性化的特征特别适宜现代收藏。[5]

19世纪,这些特征被看作是拉开艺术博物馆空间舞台的必要序幕:

“难道你不认为,在一座华丽的画廊里……建筑的一切连续部件和环绕部件都应该……和艺术有关,……有喷泉、雕像和其他有趣的东西,它们被设计使(观众们)在思想上准备好走进这座建筑,并引导他们更好地欣赏接下来将会看到的艺术作品吗?”

这位提问的19世纪英国政治家[6]清楚地懂得博物馆空间的仪式性,以及将博物馆空间(包括在这个空间里消耗的时间)区别于外面日常时空的必要性。这样的框架在任何地方的仪式活动里都很常见。玛丽·道格拉斯写道:

“一个仪式提供了一个框架。打上标记的时间和地点引起一种特别的期待,正如常常放在童话开头的 “从前”(Once upon a time)一词引起接下来将听取一段奇幻童话的情绪一样。”[7]

“阈限性”(Liminality),一个常常和仪式联系在一起的术语,也适用于我们对艺术博物馆投注的那种关注。这个术语早先由比利时民俗学家阿诺尔德·凡·根内普(Arnold van Gennep)使用[8],之后人类学家维克多·特纳(Victor Turner)在著作中发展并用来指一种外在于或者“介于普通日常文化与社会状态以及营求与消耗过程之间”[9]的意识状态。正如特纳本人所意识到的那样,他所区分的阈限性经验类别和现代西方对审美经验的看法有极大的相似性——这种接受状态被认为是最适于欣赏艺术作品的。特纳注意到观看戏剧、电影或参观艺术展览等现代活动中阈限性的方面。正如那些将日常社会行为的强制性法则暂时中止的民俗仪式一样(在这个意义上,它们“将世界颠倒”),特纳指出,这些文化情景可以打开一个空间,在那里个人可以从日常生活的实际烦扰和社会关系中跳出,并以不一样的思想和感情来观看他们自身和他们的世界——或者世界的某些方面。特纳“阈限性”的理念是从人类学的范畴发展而来,并且主要基于非西方的文化数据,因此它也许不能被很好地照搬到西方的艺术审美概念上来。但是,他的学说仍然有用,它提供了一种成熟、整体的仪式概念,这使我们得以从一个新鲜的角度来思考艺术博物馆以及普遍认为应该发生在艺术博物馆的事[10]

不过,要说明的是,特纳对艺术博物馆的见解并非独一无二。不考虑术语的话,观察者们早就意识到艺术博物馆空间的“阈限性”了。比如,卢浮宫馆长热尔曼·巴赞(Germain Bazin)曾写道,艺术博物馆是“一座庙宇,在那里时间似乎被停止了”:参观者进入艺术博物馆时希望找到那种“瞬间即逝的文化显灵”,这种显灵将带给他“直觉到自己的本质和力量的幻像”[11]。同样,瑞典作家约兰·希尔特(Goran Schildt)曾指出博物馆是这样一种被设定的环境。在此,我们寻求一种“超然的、无时间的和崇高的”沉思状态,这种状态“让我们得到一种从生活的斗争中走出的解脱……和独立自主”。提及19世纪人们对艺术的态度,希尔特发现“一种宗教的元素,一种宗教的替代品”[12]。正如我们可以看到的,还有许多人将艺术博物馆描述为可以使个人获得“阈限性”经验的场所——从平凡存在的物理限制中超脱出来,超越时间,并获得新的、更大的视角。

目前为止,我已提出博物馆经验在人们对它的关注上以及它的时空特质上具有仪式性特征,仪式还包含一个表演的元素。任何种类的仪式场所都为某种事情的上演而预备。它是一种为某种表演而设计的地方。它有着这样一种结构,不论参观者是否可以读懂它的线索,在传统仪式中,参与者常常表演或见证一场戏剧——上演一出真实或象征意义的牺牲。但仪式的表演无需是正式场面。它可能是某个个人通过遵循一条预定的路线,重复一段祷告词,回忆一段故事,或者参与某种其他构建好的经验而上演。这种经验与历史或这个场所(或者该场所的某个或某些物品)的意义有关。有些个体可能比其他个体更博学地懂得使用这个场所——他们可能在教育上准备得更好,以对该场所的象征性线索作出回应。“仪式”这个术语也可以表示缺乏有意义的、主观上下文的某种习惯性或惯例性的行为。这个意义上的仪式是一种“空洞”的惯例或表演,它并非是我在此文中所指的那种仪式。

在艺术博物馆,上演仪式的是参观者们[13]。博物馆那一套前后相继的连续空间和物体安排,它的光线和建筑细节既提供了舞台设施,也提供了剧本——虽然不是所有博物馆在为观众提供舞台和剧本时,方法都同样有效。这种场景在某些方面很像某些中世纪教堂。在那里,朝圣者遵循一条构建好的叙事路线,经过教堂内部,在规定的祈祷或沉思点停留。因此,装饰着耶稣生平代表物的回廊可以促使朝圣者在想象中重现神圣的故事。同样的,博物馆也提供设计精密的仪式性场景,最常见的是在空间序列中展开艺术史的叙事。甚至当参观者走进博物馆的目的只为了观赏几个特选作品时,博物馆的大叙事结构仍然是一个为单独作品赋予意义的框架。

正如“阈限性”的概念一样,将艺术博物馆看作表演场所的观点也被博物馆专家们发现过。比如曾经的辛辛那提艺术博物馆馆长菲利普·莱斯·亚当斯(Philip Rhys Adams)就曾将艺术博物馆和剧场设施相比较(虽然在他的说法里,主要的演员是艺术品,而不是人):

“博物馆其实是一个主持人,或者更严格地说是一个导演,而不是演员或观众。但布置情景的这位中间人有着操控全局的作用,它使观众进入一种接受性的情绪状态,然后令演员们上台并表现最完美的自己。而艺术品的确有它们的出场和进场:运动——观众进入和走出一家博物馆的动作以及他从一件艺术品走向另一件艺术品的动作——是任何舞台装置的构成因素”[14]

博物馆设施不仅自身是一种结构;它同时构成演员清单(dramatis personae)。这些演员是在社会、心理和文化上为着博物馆仪式的演出而被精心安排的理想的个体。当然,从来没有真正的参观者完美地去实现这些理想。在现实中,人们在某种程度上不断地“误读”、搅乱或抗拒博物馆的线索;或者他们根据自身的一切历史和心理意外,有意识地或者无意识地主动发明他们自己的节目。但是,任何一件文化产品被表演或被解读的时候,都会发生这样的事。[15]
最后,仪式经验被认为是有目标和结局的。它被视为一种转变:通过牺牲、苦难或启蒙,它授予或更新人的身份,亦或净化、重建自我或世界秩序。那种博物馆仪式应该带来的好结果听起来非常类似人们就传统宗教仪式所作的断言。根据博物馆的支持者所言,博物馆观众离开博物馆时会带着一种启蒙的感觉或者一种精神上被滋养或更新的感觉。用一位知名专家的话来说:

“将艺术作品集中在一个公共场所的唯一原因是……它们能在我们中制造一种崇高的愉悦。在某一时刻,林中出现了一片空地:当我们经过它时会感觉神清气爽,生命能力的增加,并带着天空的回忆。[16]

这段对博物馆经验的描述和对仪式的描述再相似不过了。这段描述的作者就是英国艺术史家肯尼思·克拉克爵士(Sir Kenneth Clark),一位杰出的学者,并因主持一套1970年代广受欢迎的BBC电视系列节目——《文明》而为人们熟知。克拉克把艺术博物馆看作一个精神转变与更新场所的观点并非独此一家。虽然没有争论,但这的确是各地的艺术史家、策展人、馆长和批评家广泛持有的观点。同样的,正如下文所说,这种观点也绝非仅仅是现代的。

最后,让我们来看艺术博物馆中的艺术品的问题。现在,人们普遍认为博物馆是最适宜观看和保存艺术品的地点。这些物品——当被视为艺术的时候才适用的物品——的存在被理所当然地认为比艺术博物馆更早,并且是后者诞生的原因。然而,这些普世观点是基于相对新颖的想法和实践之上的。欧洲将艺术品出于注视(前文译作“沉思”,contemplation)的目的,将艺术品进行放置的设计实践,产生自一种新的、历史上被认为相对现代的思维方式。18世纪,批评家和哲学家越来越多地对视觉经验感兴趣,并开始赋予艺术品以一种在精神上、道德上和情感上转变其观看者的力量。这种视觉经验上的新发现是在艺术批评和哲学体系的发展中被广泛探索到的。这些研究并不总是直接针对艺术经验,但它们赋予品味、美的见解以及感官和想象的认知角色以重要性。而这个重要性的赋予有助于为艺术评论的繁荣开发一片新的哲学土地。引人注目的是,在美学理论蓬勃发展的时代,对画廊和公共艺术博物馆的兴趣也大大增长。的确,艺术博物馆的出现是哲学中美学的发明和艺术品道德力量的必然结果;如果艺术品只有被视为艺术才适合使用的话,那么博物馆对艺术品来说就是最合适的场所,因为博物馆使艺术品失去了任何其他的使用目的。

在哲学上,康德的《判断力批判》是对这种全新美学先见的最有纪念碑意义的表达(之一)。其中,康德明确分离并定义了人类对美的判断能力,并且将美学判断能力和头脑的其他能力(实践理性和科学理解)区分开来。[17]但在康德之前,其他欧洲作者,如休谟、博克(Burke)和卢梭等,也都极力将“品味”定义为一种具有明确的道德和哲学重要性的心理机制。[18]18世纪把艺术和美学经验划为批评和哲学探索的主要议题,这本身就是赋予世俗生活以新的价值趋势的一部分。从这个意义上看,美学的发明可看作是精神价值从神圣领域到世俗时空的转移。换言之,美学家对“阈限性”进行了哲学表述,把它看作是一种从日常生活中脱离的状态,一个通向处于停滞状态的日常生活时空的通道。哲学上,“阈限性”被具体化为审美经验,一个道德和理性的脱离导致产生某种启示或转变的时刻。同时,美术馆和艺术博物馆的外表为美学崇拜提供了它自身的仪式场所。

歌德是这个发展的最初见证者之一。像其他一些访问18世纪新建艺术博物馆的人一样,他对博物馆空间及其产生的神圣感作出了高度回应。在1768 年首次参观装满华贵无比的皇家艺术收藏的德累斯顿美术馆[19]之后,他写下了自己的观感,强调整个环境那有力的仪式效应:

“当焦急等候多时的开门时刻终于到来时,我的钦慕超过一切的预期。退出世俗,居关保守的沙龙,华贵而保护得这么好,新镀金的画框,打蜡的地板,笼罩在那里的深深寂静,造成一种庄重而独特的印象,类似于踏入上帝住所时体验到的情感。当一个人观看展示的装饰品时,展出空间和收藏这些装饰品的神殿差不多大,这种印象愈加深刻,在那个奉献给神圣艺术的地方,这些装饰品都是受崇拜的对象。”[20]

博物馆史学家尼尔斯·冯·霍尔斯特(Niels von Holst)搜集了其他18世纪博物馆参观者书写的类似证据。比如,威廉·华肯罗德(Wilhelm Wackenroder)在1797年参观一家画廊(或美术馆,Art Gallery)之后,认为对艺术的凝望使人从“生命的庸俗之流”中走出,并产生一种类似于宗教迷狂的效应。[21]而在艺术博物馆仍然算是新生事物的1816年,英国批评家威廉·哈兹利特(William Hazlitt)热情赞美卢浮宫:

“艺术抬起了她的头并坐上宝座,且说,一切眼睛都应看我,一切膝盖都应对我下跪……那里,她聚集起一切的荣耀,那是她的圣坛,她的圣徒到来并崇拜她,如在庙中。”[22]

数年后,哈兹利特于1824年拜访了新开张的伦敦国家美术馆,然后安顿在蓓尔美尔街的一座房子里。他对此次经历及其仪式性的描写——他坚持美术馆和外部喧嚣世界的时空有着不同的性质,并坚持认为美术馆拥有滋养灵魂并完成最高目标、启示、振奋、转变和治愈的力量——这一切都以极其生动的语言加以描述。他写道,对这个“圣地”,这个“神圣中的神圣”的拜访, “就像去朝圣——它是一个在艺术的圣坛前进行的奉献行为!”

“这是一种对低俗思虑和不安焦虑的治疗(起码在那个时刻)。我们被抽离到另一个领域:我们呼吸天堂的空气;我们进入拉斐尔、提香、普桑、卡拉奇的思想并以他们的眼睛看自然;我们活在过去的时间,并似乎等同于事物的永恒形态。世间一切事务,甚至那些事务带来的愉快,都看起来虚空而不合时宜。和这里的独处、寂静、会说话的注视、永不消褪的形式相比,什么不是骚乱、无常、傀儡戏的角色、愚蠢和无聊的时尚呢?这里是思想真正的家园。对真和美的注视才是我们被创造出来的真正目的,这种注视唤起灵魂最热切的渴望,而这种渴望是我们的灵魂从未厌倦的。”[23]

这并不是说18世纪对艺术博物馆就毫无疑义。从一开始,一些观察者就担心博物馆的环境氛围可能改变它所陈列的物品的意义,重新定义它们为艺术品并仅仅通过使它们脱离其最初的环境来模糊化它们之前的用途,以使它们的意义变得狭隘。虽然一些人,比如哈兹利特和艺术家菲利普·奥托·龙格(Philip Otto Runge)对艺术博物馆表示欢迎,认为它是人类天才的胜利,其他人则不那么肯定或者逐渐变得不那么肯定。歌德就是一个例子。在热情歌颂德累斯顿美术馆30年后,他对拿破仑系统性地收集其他国家的艺术宝藏并把它们作为战利品陈列在卢浮宫里的行为感到烦恼。歌德看到,这座巨大博物馆藏品的建立,依靠的是对其他一些东西的摧毁,而且它强制性地改变了之前艺术被创造和理解的环境条件。和其他一些人一样,他意识到博物馆把物品框定为艺术品并要求对它们投以一种新的仪式性关注的能力可能伴随着对其他的、更古老意义的否定或模糊化。[24]

在18世纪末19世纪初,那些对艺术博物馆很感兴趣的人,不论他们是赞同还是反对艺术博物馆,都不过是少数受过教育的人——多为诗人和艺术家。随着19世纪的发展,严肃的博物馆观众大量增加;这也造成了一种对艺术博物馆价值几乎无条件的信仰。到19世纪末,在欧洲和美国那些对“文化”抱着自负心的人们中,将艺术博物馆视为神奇转变性经验发生地的观点变得很寻常。

在19世纪的大多数时候,一种世界性的博物馆文化仍旧坚定地认为,公共艺术博物馆的首要职责是在道德、社会和政治上启蒙与提高参观者。在20世纪,这一理想模式的首要竞争者——美学博物馆——将占主导。在美国,这种新的理想范式是在20世纪拉开序幕的数年间得到大力提倡的。它的主要支持者——都是富有的、受过良好教育的绅士们——都和波士顿美术馆(the Boston Museum of Fine Arts)有关联并将美学博物馆学说作为他们这个机构的官方信条。[25]这一学说最完整、最有影响力的阐述来自本杰明·艾弗斯·吉尔曼(Benjiamen Ives Gilman)的《博物馆目标和方法的理想》(Museum Ideals of Purpose and Method),此书于1918年由波士顿美术馆出版,但书中的观点是之前数年发展起来的。据吉尔曼的说法,艺术品,一旦它们被置入博物馆,就只为一个目的存在:被看作美的事物。艺术博物馆的第一职责就是将艺术品仅仅作为艺术品和审美关照的对象来呈现,而不是作为历史或考古信息的图解来展示。他详细论解道(听起来很像一个世纪前哈兹利特的语调),审美观照是一种深刻的、转变的经验,一种观者和艺术家之间在想象中的认同。要达到这种认同,观者“必须将自身投入艺术家的形象中,渗透他的意图,想其所想,感其所感” [26]。这样做的最终结果是一种深深的愉悦情绪,一种满溢的、“绝对严肃的”愉悦,饱含着深刻的精神启示。吉尔曼将这比作为意大利文艺复兴祭坛画中描绘的那种“神圣对话”——这种图画里,不同世纪的圣人奇迹般地聚集在一个想象的空间里,并一起凝视圣母玛利亚。用这个比喻,吉尔曼将现代美学家看作一个信徒,他通过和过去艺术天才——提供一种生命救赎物质的精神——的交流而达到一种世俗的优雅。他写道,“艺术是纯洁而简单的神启(Gracious Message)”,“是完美生命的必要组成部分”,对它的关照是“存在的终极之一”[27]

令吉尔曼心醉的这种博物馆理想在20世纪产生了巨大的影响。今天大多数艺术博物馆都被设计来在观众中引起吉尔曼所认为的艺术博物馆使命的那种强烈专注体验。各种各样的艺术博物馆,不管是现代的,还是历史的,都继续坚守与过去不朽灵魂交流的目标。的确,对于和一个理想化的过去或者和充满不朽精神的事物建立联系的渴望,作为不仅是艺术博物馆而且是许多其它种类仪式的持久推力,这可能是普遍存在的。人类学家埃德蒙德·里奇(Edmond Leach)指出,每种文化都作出一些象征性的努力,以对抗时间的不可逆转性及其最终结果——死亡。他论述道,重生、返老还童、精神轮回或者不朽的过去等命题都是以代替使过去时光回光返照的象征性结构来拒绝死亡。[28]作为参观者在精神上寻求重现过去重要时刻的仪式性场所,艺术博物馆是里奇所描述的那种象征性策略的完美例子。[29]

在设计上,再没有其他地方比艺术陈列室更戏剧性地显示出美学博物馆自身的骄傲了。虽然墙纸的颜色、房顶的高度、采光和其他细节随着博物馆学潮流的发展而呈现不同时代的风尚,但整个陈列装置的设计坚持并越来越多地想要将艺术品孤立起来。为了将艺术品的其他含义排除在外,以便于专注的审美凝视,这种(近距离接触)艺术的愿望使得艺术陈列室日趋亲近观者,增加了作品之间的空白墙面,使作品更接近视平线,并且每件作品都享用独立的照明[30]。今天,大多数的艺术博物馆保持着它们艺术陈列室的整齐划一,并尽量将教育性的信息分配到前厅或特别的信息亭,以免对艺术本身造成干扰。显然,陈列装置越“美学”——艺术品越少而四周空白的墙壁越多——博物馆空间就越被神圣化。华盛顿的国家美术馆那稀疏的陈列装置就将美学理想发挥到极致(图1.4)。在许多机构中,现代艺术的陈列装置也是如此(图1.5)。正如社会学家格雷纳(Cesar Grana)曾经指出的那样,现代的陈列装置实践已经将“博物馆作为庙宇”的隐喻变得几乎成为事实。甚至在那些尝试以教育为宗旨的艺术博物馆里,这种将重要原作孤立供奉在“美学礼拜堂”或壁龛的做法——但从不以历史的方式悬挂它们——削弱了任何为教育所做的努力。[31]

吉尔曼和他的同事们在波士顿热切宣道的这种为视觉注视而把艺术品孤立起来的做法,仍然是美学博物馆的突出特征之一,并继续受到雄辩的支持。这里以1988年艺术史家阿尔珀斯(Svetlana Alpers)的一段话为例:

“罗马都城或文艺复兴的祭坛画在博物馆里得到了适宜的观看,即便它们并非为博物馆而造。当这样的物品切断与仪式场所的联系时,留下的是对专注性观看的召唤,从某些角度来说,这种召唤甚至被加强了。”[32]

当然,在阿尔珀斯的表述里,只有原初的场所才具有仪式意义。在我看来,她描述的那种专注的凝视属于一种其他的(如果说是不同的话)仪式地,这个仪式地要求表演者进行热切、专注的视觉关照。

在《博物馆时代》中,热尔曼·巴赞(Germain Bazin)极富洞察力地描写了现代陈列装置是如何促使将博物馆构建为仪式场所的。在他的分析中,艺术品的孤立和照明使参观者将其注意力固定在看似存在于另一范畴的事物身上。因此,陈列装置将参观者带入某种精神旅行,跳出当下,进入永恒价值的宇宙:

“雕像必须孤立在空间中,绘画必须挂得彼此很远,闪光的珠宝放置在黑色天鹅绒的底面上并打上投光灯;原则上,视觉区域内一次应该只出现一个对象。图像学意义,整体的和谐,这些吸引19世纪外行人的方面不再是当代博物馆参观者的兴趣所在,令他们着迷的是形式和工艺;眼睛必须可以慢慢地审视整幅画面。观看的行为成为一种连结观者和伟大杰作的出神状态。”[33]

我们还可以进一步理解这个论点:在博物馆的阈限性空间里,一切事物——有时是任何事物——都可能成为艺术,包括灭火器、温度计和湿度计,只要它们被孤立在一堵墙上,并且被人通过博物馆空间的美学化透镜来观看,就可能看起来完全和作为艺术品展出的东西一样有吸引力,而那些被作为艺术品展出的东西,看起来总也不会和博物馆里的灭火器、温度计和湿度计相差很多。

以上我主要论述了艺术博物馆总体上的仪式性特征。它们包括:首先,艺术博物馆造成一种被划分出来的、“阈限性的”时空区域。在此区域内,参观者被从他们的日常实际生活中抽离出来,打开心灵之门,准备接受一种不同于日常质地的经验;第二,博物馆的布置被组织成某种戏剧脚本,由参观者来演出。我还提出,被认为是艺术博物馆总体上存在之目的的西方式美学经验,在概念上更接近于符合传统仪式的原理(启蒙、启示、精神的平衡或者恢复青春)。



[1] 玛丽·道格拉斯《纯洁和危险》,伦敦、波士顿和亨利,Routledge&Kegan Paul出版社, 1966.p.68

[2] 这里并未暗示那种在许多人类学著作里提到的文化或意识形态统一化的社会,这种社会赋予仪式一种社会统一的功能。这种统一功能受到很大的争议,特别在现代社会(参见科恩【Cohen】, 鲁克斯【Lukes】, 摩尔【Moore】, 迈耶霍夫【Mayerhoff】以及埃德蒙德·里奇【Edmond Leach】等人的描述,“仪式”,《世界社会科学百科全书》卷13,大卫·西尔斯(David Sills)编,Macmillan Co. and The Free Press, 1968, pp.521-6

[3] 玛丽·道格拉斯和巴伦·伊舍伍德(Baron Isherwood):“仪式的代价越昂贵,我们就越肯定其固化意义的企图”《商品的世界:消费的人类学》(1979),纽约和伦敦,W.W.Norton, 1982, p.65

[4] 参见尼古劳斯·佩夫斯纳(Nikolaus Pevsner), 《建筑类型史》,普林斯顿,纽约,普林斯顿大学出版社,1976,pp 118ff,尼尔斯·冯·霍尔斯特(Niels von Holst), 《创造者、收藏者和鉴赏者》,巴特尔乔(B.Battershaw)译,纽约,G.P.Putnam’s Sons, 1967,pp 228ff.巴赞(German Bazin), 《博物馆时代》,凡·纽伊斯·卡西尔(J.van Nuis Cahill)译,纽约,Universe Books,1967, pp.197-202;以及威廉·L·麦克唐纳德(William    L.MacDonald),《帕特农神庙:设计、意义和后果》,剑桥,哈佛大学出版社, 1976,pp. 125-32

[5]《巴尔扎克》的生殖崇拜外形常常站立在美国博物馆入口处或其附近,比如洛杉矶国立艺术博物馆和诺顿·西蒙博物馆;或者矗立在博物馆雕塑花园的中心,比如纽约现代艺术博物馆或华盛顿的赫希洪博物馆。

[6] 威廉·艾华特(William Ewart), 《关于国家美术馆选举委员会的报告》,众议院,《报告》第35卷,1853,p.505

[7] 《纯洁和危险》,p.63

[8] 阿诺尔德·凡·根内普,《走廊的仪式》(1908),韦兹登(M.B.Vizedom)、加费(G.L.Caffee)翻译,芝加哥,芝加哥大学出版社,1960

[9] 特纳,《框架、源流和投影》,p.33以及《戏剧、场地和隐喻:人类社会的象征行为》,伊萨卡和伦敦,康奈尔大学出版社,1974,特别是pp.13-15和231-2.

[10] 参见玛丽·乔·狄根(Mary Jo Deegan), 《美国仪式化戏剧:社会规则和文化含义》,纽约、Westport、Conn.和伦敦,格林伍德出版社, 1988, pp 7-12中对特纳观点及其对现代艺术的有限适用性的探讨。相反的观点参见玛格丽特·蜜德(Margaret Mead),《艺术和现实,从文化社会学出发》,《大学艺术杂志》,1943,第2期,pp.119-21。蜜德认为现代的美术馆参观者不可能获得原始宗教提供的那种经验,“生命意义的象征性表达”。

[11] 巴赞,《博物馆时代》,p.7

[12] 希尔特, 《博物馆的理想》,收入L.Aagaard-Mogensen编的《博物馆的理想:哲学的、艺术的和政治的问题》,当代哲学的问题,卷6,Edwin Mellen Press, 1988,p. 89

[13] 我(作者)认为,即使在观看“行为艺术家”的表演时,观众是表演者的这一事实也不例外。

[14] 菲利普·莱斯·亚当斯(Philip Rhys Adams), 《论展示的战略》,《博物馆》1954第7期第1号,p.4

[15] 为了理解博物馆参观者从他们的经历中获得了什么,可参见玛丽·比尔德(Mary Beard)的《文化的纪念品:破译博物馆》,《艺术史》1992第15期pp505-32,文中比尔德试图通过对购买和使用明信片的考察,证明参观者是如何诠释博物馆仪式的。

[16] 肯尼思·克拉克,《理想博物馆》,《艺术新闻》1954年1月,卷52,p.29

[17] 康德,《判断力批判》(17990),巴尔纳德(J.H.Bernard)译,纽约,哈夫纳出版公司, 1951.

[18] 该领域的两部经典是:艾伯翰(M.H.Abrams),《镜子和灯》,纽约,W.W.Norton,1958和瓦尔特·杰克逊·巴特(Walter Jackson Bate),《从古典到浪漫主义;18世纪英国品味的前提》,纽约,Harper&Bros.,1946。作为这些发展的一个总结,参见蒙罗·C·比尔兹利(Monroe C.Beardsley),《从古希腊到现在的美学:一部简要的历史》,阿拉巴马大学出版社,1975,第8章和第9章。

[19] 关于德累斯顿美术馆,参见注释4中冯·霍尔斯特的著作,pp.121-3

[20] 引自歌德的《诗与真》,转引自巴赞(脚注4),p.160

[21] 冯·霍尔斯特 (脚注4),p.216

[22] 哈兹利特,《埃尔金大理石》(1816),P.P.Howe(编)《完整的作品》,纽约,AMS 出版公司,1967,第7卷,p.101。感谢安德鲁·海明威(Andrew Hemingway)为本注释所作贡献。

[23] 哈兹利特,《英国主要图片画廊梗概》,伦敦,Taylor&Hessey,1824,pp.2-6.

[24] 转引自伊丽莎白·吉尔默尔·霍尔特(Elizabeth Gilmore Holt)),《艺术为公众的胜利》,花园城,纽约,Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1979,p.76.法国人迪昆赛(Quatremere de Quincy)也将艺术博物馆视为对赋予艺术以价值的历史意义的破坏。参见丹尼尔·舍曼(Daniel Sherman), 《迪昆赛/本雅明/马克思:博物馆,灵晕和拜物教》,收入舍曼和罗格夫(I.Rogoff))(编)《博物馆文化:历史、论述、景观、媒体和社会》卷6,明尼阿波利斯和伦敦,明尼苏达大学出版社,1994,pp.123-43。感谢作者提供其论文的提前影印本。

[25] 特别参见保罗·迪玛乔(Paul Dimaggio)《十九世纪的文化主办人:美国高等文化的组织基础的创造》,《媒体、文化和社会》1982,卷2,pp.33-50和303-22;以及瓦尔特·缪尔·怀特希尔(Walter Muir Whitehill),《波士顿美术馆:一百年的历史》,卷2,剑桥,马萨诸塞州,哈佛大学出版社,1970。

   在这一章里,我(本文作者)引用得更多的是对美学博物馆的支持声,而不是对教育型博物馆的支持声。因为,大体而言,对美学博物馆支持声更能支持和表达博物馆空间的阈限性,而教育型博物馆倾向于对此表示怀疑,并将博物馆空间的阈限性和社会精英主义联系起来(可参见本脚注Dimaggio的著作)。但是,教育型博物馆结构的仪式性决不亚于美学博物馆,正如接下来的两章即将为您展示的那样。

[26] 吉尔曼(Benjamin Ives Gilman),《博物馆目标和方法的理想模式》,剑桥,波士顿艺术博物馆,1918,p.56

[27] 同上,p.108

[28] 里奇,《关于时间的象征性再现的两篇散文》,收入《人类学反思》,伦敦,伦敦大学,阿特龙出版公司,以及纽约,人文出版公司,1961,pp.124-36。感谢迈克尔·艾梅思(Michael Ames)为此注释所作贡献。

[29] 最近,艺术批评家唐纳德·库斯皮特(Donald Kuspit)提出,对不朽的追求是艺术博物馆的中心意义。库斯皮特指出,艺术博物馆那种神圣化的空间为参观者和艺术家创造了一种强烈的、个人化的身份认同感,由此给参观者带来一种与某种不朽之物建立联系、并因此获得重生的感受。对库斯皮特来说,这个转化过程的成功与否取决于参观者的那西瑟斯(译注:自恋)需求是否在他或她所观照的艺术中得到表达(《博物馆的魔法王国》,《艺术论坛》,1992年4月,pp.58-63)。维尔纳·明斯特伯格(Werner Muensterberger)在《收藏:难以控制的激情:心理学透视》(普林斯顿,新泽西,普林斯顿大学出版社,1994)对收藏作了实践心理分析的经验,并深度探索了收藏行为中各种不同的那西瑟斯动机,其中包括对不朽的渴求。

[30] 举例来说,吉尔曼的追随者之一,查理斯·G·罗林(Charles G. Loring)指出目前的一种趋势是“在小房间里,注意力可以集中于两三件大师作品”(见《博物馆设计的一种趋势》,《建筑论坛》,1927年12月,第47卷,p.579)。

[31] 格雷纳,《公共博物馆的私人生活》,《学报》,1967,第4卷,第5号,pp.20-5。

[32] 阿尔帕斯,《作为一种观看方式的博物馆》,收入《Karp and Levine》,见注释1,p.27

[33] 巴赞,同注释4,p.265

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Group Visit Agreement
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CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

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