以雕塑家的名义 重新发现材料之美

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旧报纸、废包装、电话线、弃用的塑料水桶……这些“命中注定”要扔进垃圾桶的废弃物,却被统统收拢带进了美术馆,成为4月7日、8日为期两天的“另一群艺术家——发掘雕塑发现材料创意坊”活动的创作素材。
令它们做梦也想不到的是,它们在托尼克拉格的雕塑面前比美,在另一群艺术家的手中重新焕发生命。那么这群鉴赏力独特的“艺术家”是谁?创意坊究竟在做些什么活动?
报名参加美术馆公教部活动的40余名艺术爱好者正是这次的主角,他们中间有小至学龄前的儿童,大至工作十多年的白领,还有来自北京科技大学、中央财经大学等高校所学专业与艺术无关的青年学生。活动分为两组,一是7日的青少组,由家长陪同,一是8日的成人组。
公教部邀请青年艺术家杨光南,担任让艺术爱好者们变身“艺术家”引路人的角色,从专业视角切入,解读克拉格雕塑,并利用身边的材料与物品创作自己的雕塑作品。

美术馆意图通过活动让参与者看雕塑家之所看,做雕塑家之所做,思雕塑家之所思,发现自己作为雕塑家的潜能。

以雕塑家之眼·看雕塑
“托尼克拉格是我很喜欢的一位雕塑家。因为他父亲是工程师,托尼很小就对材料本身感兴趣。”杨光南的第一句话这样开场。没有渲染托尼在雕塑史中的地位,也没有回避自己对同行的欣赏,她像是托尼的朋友,娓娓道来托尼的故事与他雕塑风格的转变。
杨光南介绍,托尼最早做雕塑选用的材料是日常生活中随处可见的物品甚至废弃物,其中最典型的一件是他获1988年英国特纳奖的作品《大教堂》。“他找了很多工厂废弃的齿轮,像搭积木一样,把大的放到最底下,小的摞在上面,一直堆到最顶端不能再堆为止。”她一边用手比划着一边解释,这件作品有意思的是,它借助重力作用,完全靠自然力完成作品的造型。
“这件作品是一片片粘贴起来的么?”在另一件作品《路加》面前,有人指着雕塑上一圈圈很细的纹问道。其实很多大体量的雕塑作品都是一块块接合起来的,“几个部分先分开做,再通过磨光技术把痕迹处理掉,让人看到光滑完整的表面。当然也有故意做出痕迹的效果。”
除了讲述托尼的故事,更多时候,杨光南从创作雕塑的角度,分析了托尼展厅里几乎每一件雕塑作品所使用的材料、方法以及不同材料自身的特点。
“我觉得雕塑家就像魔术师一样,解密雕塑的创作过程。以前看雕塑只是感性地欣赏,一直想知道这些雕塑是怎么做出来的,今天算是揭开神秘面纱了。”

以雕塑家之手·做雕塑
欣赏完托尼的雕塑作品,美术馆工作人员带参与者来到展厅的一角。正对着托尼克拉格的作品,一块十平见方的黑色地毯上已摆满各式各样的材料,这正是他们即将大展身手的活动场地。
“我要做大炮!我要做手枪!” 一到制作场地,孩子们撒丫子式地跑到材料面前“哄抢”看中的原始素材。没想到,一个个农夫山泉水桶,成了男孩子们争夺的对象。
在托尼的雕塑面前,创作灵感不难被激发,参与者们很快动手用剪刀用粘合剂或剪切或拼贴自己想要表达的东西。
正上一年级的7岁小男孩汪诺阿是个“多产”艺术家,短短的一小时里,竟然做出了四件成品:鹅卵石大小的迷你咖啡色敞篷轿车、巧克力味的冰棍、一加仑的冲锋大炮,还有一支由五颜六色的冰棍棒粘合拼成的弓箭。
当工作人员鼓励他的小轿车颜色搭配很好时,汪诺阿放下手中的未完成作品,捉起立在地上的小轿车,指给我们看,“喏,我用的纽扣做车轮,很有创意吧!” 
不过在孩子们的作品里最出乎意料的是顾大有的“高铁”。他把绿色橡皮泥捏成了拱形,大小和弓起的程度正好可以扣在楼梯的扶手拦上,最重要的是,他在拱的底部粘了一层塑料胶带,这一下减少了橡皮泥与扶手栏之间摩擦的阻力,当把“高铁”放在扶手栏上时,它就依着重力真的动起来了,而且滑的相当平稳,看来是和谐号呢!
杨光南讲,传统雕塑通过占有空间体现存在,而运动雕塑通过运动轨迹来体现存在。运动雕塑是现代才有的概念。“‘高铁’很有点运动雕塑的意思。”
第二天的“成人组”与第一天的“青少组”有很大差别,孩子们做出的多是大炮、飞机、洋娃娃等具象的叫得出名字的作品,而“成人组”的作品语言则很有现代风格——抽象。
央美艺术史专业的大四学生孙明利在一次性纸杯上,照着原有的圆形设计图案粘了红色、绿色的橡皮泥。她解释,她的用色是波普艺术家常选用的颜色,在纸杯上黏贴大小不同的橡皮泥,产生了节奏感与律动感,想表达马列维奇的作品的感觉。
另一位中央财经大学的学生把很多纸杯用塑料绳捆绑在一起,她想表达城市空间就像纸杯一样,不断地被挤压,变得越来越局促和紧张。“不过当那些杯子越捆越紧的时候,绳子反而松了。它会有挣脱的一天。”
在“成人组”里,也有件别具一格的作品,它的不同之处在于它占了地毯的三分之一空间。这是艺术家张玥的作品,他把各种材料依次塞进一个中空凳子里,看它们穿过会发生什么变化。“有的没变,有的却被挤压,”他看着在地毯上平铺开的作品说,“就像你上学被教育改造的过程一样。”

以雕塑家之思·三问雕塑    
在“雕塑家”们制作雕塑的整个过程中,参与者们与艺术家、工作人员互动交流,产生了这样三个问题,你认为什么样的东西算作艺术品(雕塑品),你喜欢什么样的材料以及为什么,你为什么要做这样的作品。
这不仅是每个人困惑的问题,也是每一个艺术家在创作时时常思考的问题。
以雕塑家之名,你会怎样回答这三个问题?



文/ 张婷婷 图/ 全晶
编/任蕊

Tags: Art Workshop

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This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

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Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

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Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

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Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

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During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

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Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

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I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

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Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

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Hello! Thank you for participating in our public education event and we are looking forward to seeing you! If you cannot attend the event on time, please send a text message to 13261936837 (Liang) to cancel the booking. Please be aware that your eligibility for using the quick booking may be affected If you cancel the booking more than three times. Thank you for your understanding!
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