academic research

Around Leonardo. Pupils, followers, imitators...

2019-09-10 20 people interested

This is an exhibition that— in the year of the celebrations of the five-hundred-year anniversary of the death of the Renaissance genius — focuses on the artistic and cultural climate generated by him in his time that from today (and until August 25) proposes in Venice the Levi Foundation in Palazzo GiustinianLolin. “Leonardo e la sua grande scuola” (“Leonardo and his great school”)— this is the title of the exhibition curated by Nicola Barbatelli— exhibits in fact 24 works that illustrate above all the personality of the so-called “leonardeschi”(“Leonardesques”), some of who attended his workshop in Lombardy, when he was in the service of Lodovico il Moro, and the works by the “leonardeschi” largely crystallized on the master’s style, remaining at a sidereal distance from him. However, they had the great merit of spreading, through their travels, the innovative style of Leonardo also in areas outside from his journeys, like Giovanni Agostino da Lodi (not present in the exhibition) in Venice, Bernardino Luini in Switzerland or Cesare daSesto in southern Italy and Rome.This is also remembered by a historian of Venetian art such as Giovanna NepiScirèin one of the essays accompanying the exhibition’s catalogue (still in print).The works of some of them, from Bernardino Luini to Cesare da Sesto, to the beloved pupil Salaì, to Giampietrino to Marco d'Oggiono, are precisely in the Venice exhibition. In some cases, with works of high level such as “Marta e Maria Maddalena” (“Martha and Mary Magdalene”)or “Maddalena con vaso d’unguento” (“Magdalene with an ointment vase”)of Luini, in particular for his ability to combine Leonardo’s sfumatowith a kind of metaphysical rigour that pervades his figures. And  exactly Magdalene herself is represented in one of the symbol-pictures of the exposition, the “Maddalena discinta” (“Bare-Breasted Magdalene”),that next to the preponderant hand of one of the Leonardesques — perhaps Marco d’Oggiono for the curator, perhaps Giampietrino for a great Leonardo scholar suchas Carlo Pedretti, recently passed away — could also see the hand of the master. Peculiar also a large “San Gerolamo in penitenza” (“Saint Hieronymus Penitent”)by Cesare da Sesto, who enriched Leonardo’s language with revivals from the classical art and from Raphael.The Leonardesques’ distinguishing feature remains — variously declined — the compositional smoothness, the use of sfumato, the diffuse illumination, the melancholic beauty of the subjects, the ambiguity of the faces. Leonardo’s sure presence in the exhibition is however represented by a fragment of a study drawing for the lost fresco, “Battaglia di Anghiari” (“Battle of Anghiari”)— of which the Gallerie dell’Accademia exhibit in this period several sheets — and by that of a “Testa di uomo” (“Man’s Head”), gone over again by the hand of a pupil of the artist. The director of the Levi Foundation, Giorgio Busetto, the president of the cooperative party Venice 2000 Foundation, Giuliano Segre and Francesco Stochino Weissof the Beijing Music Festival Arts Foundation yesterday presented in the opening ceremony. As a matter of fact, the exhibition, after Venice, will fly to China, to be shown first in Beijing starting from the early September, and then in other cities in China. In line also with the musical vocation of the Levi Foundation, in the Chinese stages it will also see musical interludes with the Ugo and Olga Levi Venice Ensemble with students of the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory, that will perform Renaissance music with vintage instrumentsand also passages of Chinese tradition.Enrico Tantucci ...More

“异托邦”的重构——新美术馆学视域下的“太虚之境”...

2019-09-06 8 people interested

雷安通过升级版“异托邦”的打造在美术馆、艺术家、艺术作品与观众之间构建了一种新型关系网。它可以被解读为一次贴近新美术馆学理念的实践。 ...More

没有神的沉浸时代...

2019-09-06 5 people interested

所谓沉浸之作,未必永远是面向公众的绝佳选择,但它们往往不高高在上强调权力,并能提供临时广场,把人从数字生活和重重语境中拽出来,在错觉中想一想,那些比错觉更荒谬的事。这就是埃利希所做到的,并且是他一直被需要的原因。 ...More

解析雷安德罗·埃利希作品中“诡秘的空间意涵”...

2019-09-03 16 people interested

雷安的作品不会使人感觉到沉重,但我们不能以为这种愉悦性是诡秘感的解药,恰恰相反,他的作品不断重设和拼贴我们熟悉的空间印象,使得诡秘感渗透进本来熟知的客体中 ...More

从观众视角看雷安德罗•埃利希的创作...

2019-09-02 8 people interested

巨大而精巧的景观,超现实的情景,乐此不疲的观众……从步入展厅的那一刻起,一种独属于雷安德罗·埃利希(Leandro Erlich)的创作特征,瞬时间涌入视野,冲刷并震颤着人们的感官。 ...More

To Hold a “Knowledgeable” Exhibition - Taking “Exhibition of Selected Works from the National Beiping Art School Period” as an Example...

2019-08-07 52 people interested

The “CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) Collection Series: Exhibition of Selected Works from the National Beiping Art School Period” (“National Beiping Art School Exhibition” or “the Exhibition”) is a trademark CAFAM collection exhibition since 2012. It has received good response and acclamations from the society. The Exhibition is one of the few monographic collection series in the domestic art museum world. It is a program worth exploration and reference, in the aspects of its selected topics, exhibitions, academic research, publicity and exhibition period. The article will analyze the intellectual and academic qualities of the exhibition’s content and structure.Living in a world filled with thousands of various exhibitions, including the collection exhibitions, we are still struggling to find meaningful ones in them. It is partly due to the limited level of exhibited artworks, but is further because of the out-of-date curatorial ideas and the result of which, lack of exhibitions with substance and reason. In an era of information explosion, when the information people receive increases greatly, the audience are no longer satisfied with the superficial image of artworks. They have more need for the cultural concept and creative intentions behind the world. The quality of the exhibition’s effect lies in the curatorial team’s ideas, which decide every detail of an exhibition. CAFAM is one of the earliest to raise the idea of producing knowledge in art museums in China. It views the art museums as a public space that produces and provides knowledge, and regards “knowledge production” as the historical responsibility and profession of art museums: “Art museums should be a synthesis of ‘knowledge production’. Every action related to art and culture that happens in an art museum can build up the meanings and values of ‘knowledge’; Art museums should take the production of ‘knowledge’ as its starting point and core meaning.” Art museums have historical responsibility in social education. Its exhibitions represent the professional institutions’ perspectives and attitudes. Through exhibitions they lead to discussions about the artworks, promote research on relevant art history research and the dissemination of artistic concepts, for the public to acquire knowledge and new perspectives on art. This is an important channel for the art museums to practice its function. In this sense, when we hold exhibitions in an art museum, we need to consider what the audience need and what we need to show them.Under the guidance of such concept, every step during the preparation of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is centered around how to study the collection, how to make the audience understand the artworks, the theme of “Beiping Art School” and how to help the audience understand the exhibition and learn knowledge. This is a common goal for all the collection exhibitions - with real content and attitude, to “study history and collection profoundly and structurally and form an ‘art history’ writing.” 1.  Cultural Responsibilities and Knowledge Production from the Perspective of the Selected Topics of the National Beiping Art School ExhibitionThe topics of collection exhibitions are very important. The topic is the guideline of an exhibition. A good exhibition’s topic must have high academic level, historical sense, and contain social thinkings about the history and modern time, so that it is fresh instead of cliche and powerless; so that new possibilities could generate from the historical collections, while new academic viewpoint and research result can be passed on to the audience; so that the audience could truly learn things and further push forward the art cause.Why choosing the topic of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition? CAFAM has given to it thorough thinking: First, National Beiping Art School is a miniature and milestone of the development of modern art education in China. In the foreword of the first series exhibition it says: “The National Beiping Art School will was not only the fine art education shrine that gathered the best teachers and students and represented modern Chinese art, but also a cultural front that advocated spirits such as art education for all and the combination of art and science.” Many important thinkings, events and figures of modern Chinese art history are interwoven with the history of the National Beiping Art School, especially in Beijing, without the knowledge of the School would make it difficult to understand art during the Republic of China period. Moreover, as the predecessor of CAFA, the School is the foundation of many of CAFA’s heritage. During its 30-year development in Beijing, it had established close relationship with Beijing’s cultural scene, and was one of a significant aspect of Beijing culture. Thus, the National Beiping Art School is an utterly important and meaningful topic in terms of modern art history. Meanwhile, it is also a paradox: As the first national art school of modern China, a nursery ground for a large number of talents, it is still perceived vaguely, shatteredly, and inadequately by the public and even the academic world. In a long period of time, knowledge and research on the Beiping National Art School was in its primary stage. Its historical meaning is still far from well dug into. In this sense, this topic has filled in the gap of Chinese art history, as well as the gap in most audience’s cognition of art. This is exactly the responsibility of art museums. In the early stage of preparation for the Exhibition, CAFAM took the angle of art history research, and tried to bring in a macroscopical and historic thinking. What the museum needs to do is more than the display of artworks, but more importantly to tell a history, to fill the gap in the audience’s knowledge as well as art history research.2. Knowledge Production and Communication of Collection Exhibition from the Perspective of Organization and Execution of the National Beiping Art School ExhibitionThe successful selection of topic has solved an important problem, but why curating such an exhibition? How would the museum hold such an exhibition and will it be able to successfully hold the exhibition? The answers lie in adequate preparation. Only with adequate preparation the exhibition will naturally happen.In the foreword for the first series exhibition that focuses on western paintings, it mentioned four fundamental works regarding the National Beiping Art School: First, the discovery of important artists and artworks; second, organization and protection; third, featured researches on the collections and the National Beiping Art School; digital archiving. It was because these works have made progress that CAFAM was able to begin the exhibition series. Regarding the execution of the exhibition, the curators hope every part of the exhibition could offer adequate information and effective knowledge for the audience, so that they could understand the exhibition in multiple perspectives and levels, and make new discoveries through the exhibition. To achieve this goal, the curators put great effort in the selection, writing and organization of the exhibition, with the hope that the audience could comprehend the essence of the art during the National Beiping Art School period, and construct a succinct but complete image of the School. (1) Choose angles and accurate positioning of the exhibition according to the practical contentThe National Beiping Art School displayed by the Exhibition almost has no trace in most people’s memory, and that’s why a great deal of image archives and researches are needed to enrich the School’s picture. It is a fine art school with comprehensive disciplines, including painting, music, theater and architecture; in its 30 some years history, there were numerous disciplines and complex staff and student groups, which makes it especially important to choose what content the exhibition would display. In recent years, paintings by the first west painting professors Wu Fading and Li Yishi, like Wu’s Portrait of Woman Wearing Qipao and Li’s Portrait of Chen Shizeng (Picture 9), and works by teachers of the later period such as Sun Zongwei, Qi Zhenqi, Wang Linyi are gradually discovered and organized. Adding the original collection of masterpieces by Xu Beihong, Zhang Daqian, Qi Baishi, Huang Binhong, Chen Banding, Chang Shuhong, Wu Zuoren, Ai Zhongxin, Li Keran and Li Kuchan, CAFAM is equipped with a fundamental collection of the National Beiping Art School period. However, the collection is mainly composed of oil painting, Chinese painting, sketches and pastel painting, which is limited in categories and not able to reflect a complete picture of the School. Even so, another research on teachings during the Naitonal Beiping Art School period indicates that these categories exactly echo with the two most important and longest-established departments - western paintings and Chinese paintings. It is based on this fact that the curation of the Exhibition highlights these two departments, in order to show the main image and artistic characters of the School. In order to fully present the highly distinguished conditions and developments of western paintings and Chinese paintings in that period, the exhibition took the form of series exhibition, and held two feature exhibitions separately for western and Chinese paintings.Exhibitions with a specialized angle might not be comprehensive or grand, but they have more advantage in offering effective knowledge and information to the audience. This is a very important function of collection exhibitions. (2) Select exhibited works by academic standard and professional knowledgeExhibited works are traditionally the main body and most important component of an exhibition. The richest and most emphasized content of any exhibition is the exhibited works. To curate a fruitful exhibition for the audience, we must select works with high artistic value. Many of the exhibited works at the National Beiping Art School Exhibition are very precious works with high academic and artistic value, most of which are exhibited for the first time; some have even filled the gap of academic studies, such as Wu Fading’s Portrait of Woman Wearing Qipao, Li Yishi’s Portrait of Chen Shizeng, Portrait of Wang Mengbai in the western painting sector; and Zheng Jin’s Fox, Magnolia and Peacock, and Chen Shizeng’s album in the Chinese painting. With these precious works once again entered the public sphere through the Exhibition, neglected masters such as Yao Manfu, Xiao Qianzhong, Wang Mengbai, Tang Dingzhi, Yu Shaosong, Yan Bolong, Qi Zhenqi, Fang Bowu were also discovered. In the academic world, these works provide more complete materials for research on art history and construction of fine art memory of the Republic of China era; in the social realm, the public enjoy the opportunity of gaining a more complete, honest and richer knowledge of the art of the National Beiping Art School.These works themselves were not labeled with “National Beiping Art School”, neither were they from the same source, so how did we select and gather them up? It was thanks to the extensive effort of exhibition organizers. Every search and categorization of a work is a transmit of knowledge. A especially good point of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is the serious-minded organization of works based on fact checks. Each and every artwork selected for the exhibition conformed to the exhibition’s standards, and could reflect the message the exhibition would like to pass on. When the exhibition was first organized, CAFAM has clear and strict rules for the works to be selected: First, as the theme is National Beiping Art School, the works must be related with the School - works from the School’s teachers or students, with its date and information clearly recorded, though because of the immature development of researches on the School, we encountered a lot of difficulties in the fact check works. Moreover, the National Beiping Art School people usually generally refer to was founded in 1918 and merged into Central Academy of  Fine Arts in 1949. Since it stopped existing since 1950, with a lot of academic changes happening since then, the works by the right authors must also be created during circa. 1918-1950. This is to guarantee the original presentation of the School’s art styles and to reduce historical misreadings. In order to find most comprehensive collection of works by the National Beiping Art School’s artists, we on the one hand search for names in the School’s staff and student rosters; on the other hand, we went through resumes of artists collected by CAFAM, and located those who were related to the School. After strict screening of works, we selected works that accord with the exhibition standards. But even though, they were not the final selections (all of them were included in the exhibition catalogue for future academic studies). Only the most precious and wonderful artworks were eventually exhibited according to requirements of the exhibition standards and space. The exhibited works could most directly tell the audience what the National Beiping Art School was, and what are the works that could most represent the School. The process of selecting works were also a process of clarifying truth, a process of showing the real picture of works from the National Beiping Art School period. Furthermore, as exhibited works were strictly organized according to the chronological order of the artists’ birth date, it could clearly present the change of era, and make the audience understand more clearly the School’s development in different stages. (3) Organize history and academic background behind works from the perspective of academic research and audience’s acceptabilityAlthough the National Beiping Art School Exhibition was divided into two themes: western painting and Chinese painting, due to the lack of the public’s knowledge of the School, it would confuse the audience if we directly entered narration about the two genres. In this sense, it is particularly important to have a basic research and introduction of the history and development of the School.  Only when the audience understood that part of information that they would understand the artworks’ cultural meaning, historical and artistic value. So firstly, facing the problems of the School’s complicated history of being established and re-established by different governments during the Republic of China period, its confusing naming in different stages and even today, curators conducted basic but clear organization of the history of the School. In the opening exhibition (Western Painting), the curators set up several blocks that provide introduction of the School in text and pictures, to form a vivid, graphic memory of the School. I now list a few of the blocks below: 1) The National Beiping Art School Chronology organized by Cao Qinghui (Picture 14 & 15), which presents detailed time of every change of the School’s name, directors, administrative affiliations, and addresses; 2) Table of the Corresponding Relationships between CAFAM Western Painting Collection’s Authors and the National Beiping Art School History, made by CAFAM, which organizes the exhibited artists’ time of study or teaching at the School, linking abstract history events with concrete paintings and creating a whole piece of picture with the two separate parts; 3) Archives, photos, seals and part of the books collected by the National Beiping Art School Library (Picture 16 - 20), such as the sketch portfolio sent by Zhang Xian to the School in 1936, articles by Xu Beihong and others to mourn Qi Zhenqi’s death, reports on Qi Zhenqi’s death, the School’s 1928 yearbook, archives of all phases of the School collected by CAFA, and “Artworks in Overseas Collections” at the “Realignment” exhibition, etc. These precious and vivid materials carry a great deal of historical message  and traces, bringing the audience to the time of the School, and passing on abundant historical codes to the audience. Meanwhile, the first systematic exhibition of these precious archives further provide materials and fuels to the development of academic research. For instance, in the following “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium, a scholar spoke about the Line between the North and the South issue of the Republic of China art based on Zhang Xian’s sketch portfolio.As many artists of this exhibition were unknown to the public, the Exhibition also sorted out complete resume of each artist (Picture 21), including the artist’s photo, birth date and death date, birthplace, alias, education and work experience, and major academic propositions, and mostly importantly, their teaching time and positions at the National Beiping Art School. Through this resume, the audience would know the artists’ achievements, their relationship with the School, and the important roles these people played in the Republic of China art world. In both the western painting and Chinese painting sectors, the artists’ signs and inscriptions were recognized; especially in the case of the seals, preface and postscripts on Chinese paintings, we especially displayed the text recognized by professional scholars alongside the original artworks, so that the audience could compare the text with that in the paintings, to help themselves better understand the works’ intentions.Except for the above mentioned works and archives, the Exhibition also collected, and displayed relevant research materials of the National Beiping Art School, to provide academic researches with more clues and questions, which makes it a good practice of pushing forward research with exhibition. In order to explain the special characters of the School’s period, especially the relationship between teachers’ creative practices and theoretical research (painting studies), the Chinese painting sector of the Exhibition collected and exhibited the first editions of important essays and articles by the exhibited artists published in the Republic of China period. Some of these materials are already academic classics, but there were hardly any chance for them to be gathered together, especially their first edition; in this case, the Exhibition presented a special scenery by linking these articles together with the thread of the National Beiping Art School. Meanwhile, the organization of these materials also provide systematic clue to Chinese paintings created during the National Beiping Art School period and even the Republic of China period (Picture 22). CAFAM saw this exhibition as a platform to gather materials of value in all layers, and through categorization and organization it hopes to see chemical reactions in thinking and research.The Exhibition’s introduction and presentation of history and academic background shows CAFAM’s academic level and vision. Only when the historical relations of the artworks are organized and the stories behind artworks are well told, that the audience would find it easier to understand the exhibition and the knowledge behind it, so as for the effective communication of knowledge. (4) Conduct systematic and focused academic researches and guide the audience through the exhibitionOnly putting good artworks together won’t make a good exhibition. The real value of a work is the historical value and artistic value it carries. Thus the Exhibition proposes to conduct analyses on artworks not from the superficial and isolated angles of their content, techniques, but from their (art) historical background and development, and to appreciate different works and discover their charisma via comparison. Guiding the audience to appreciate artworks is both the museum’s responsibility and requirement for knowledge circulation. Feature research became the partly hidden and partly visible kite string behind, as well as the academic core of the exhibition. It is exactly this idea that the Exhibition would like to affirm, that we should show the audience content and clues through art historical researches, and tell the audience what to see and how to see. All the research of the Exhibition series was centered around the National Beiping Art School’s history from the perspectives that the audience could easily understand, to re-organize the chaotic and complicated history events, and provide the audience with essence of artistic development below the surface.The academic focus of the exhibitions are clearly set according to the paintings’ genre and time. All three exhibitions include Associate Professor Cao Qinghui’s simple but profound feature research. Such a significant research body, tailored specially for an exhibition, is a rare case. In the western painting sector, Professor Cao Qinghui wrote an essay titled “Mainstream, main thread and others”, in which he conducted analyses on collected works and their authors, while linking them to the development of western art in China in the 20th century, so as to organize the main thread of the introduction and practice of western paintings in the first half of 20th century with the National Beiping Art School as an example. Research found out that most of the western painting teachers of the early National Beiping Art School period have studied abroad, so have the teachers from the late period, that’s why their works are closely related to Japan and Europe and involve complicated teacher-student relationships. To put it simply, the main thread of western painting’s development is linked by overseas students and their students; the main stream is the introduction of realistic paintings and the formation of realistic trend and school in 1940s. The main thread of Chinese painting’s development, on the other hand, was narrated by Prof. Cao Qinghui in his essay “The Transformation of Painting Studies Through Broken Shadows of Chinese Painting”. He analyzed main issues the Chinese Painting Department of the National Beiping Art School faced in the 30 some years history, such as the conflicts between western pedagogy and traditional Chinese painting study, conflicts between officers with overseas study background and Chinese faculties, and ups and downs of logic methodologies of painting study, the evolution of Chinese painting and the development of realism. The two essays not only provided distinctive organization and study of the history of western painting and Chinese painting disciplines of the National Beiping Art School, but also clarified the two disciplines’ faculty background, development process and art styles, narrated the major history events of western painting and Chinese painting, and divided the School’s history into clear phases. Based on this solid research result, the exhibition was curated from the two unique angles of overseas study and painting study, which reveals to the point the core question in changes of faculty and art styles during the School’s development. The exhibition thus offered special viewpoints and clues.The practice of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition indicates that except for good artworks, collection exhibitions must also have profound study and systematic organization of collected works. This kind of study should avoid pinning a meaningless academic label on works or exhibitions, which would only confuse the audience. Such study should go through detailed and accurate academic research and organization, should target certain aspects, while also considering the audience’s acceptability. (5)  Set up the museum’s educational responsibility in historical narration through collection exhibitionsThe Exhibition advocates an academic attitude of restoring and envisaging history. This accords with CAFAM’s educational responsibility to restore history and conduct historical narration.The history is full of variety and causal relationships, but it is also hypercritical and forgetful. Many hidden historical events are equally important in their days, and are an important node in the study of history. The lack of avoidance from history will lead to many misreadings, and thus the lost of vitality. In face of these significant problems, CAFAM should present objective exhibitions. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition, when dealing with the National Beiping Art School during the enemy occupation of Beiping  (it was named National Beijing Art School at the moment), gave that history objective positioning and evaluation.A museum’s display and narration of art history should be systematic and consistent, which is an important embodiment of the museum’s educational function. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition boldly experimented on this aspect, and made some achievements in the two exhibitions on western and Chinese painting. It seems that the question of the National Beiping Art School has been answered after systematic organization of the two painting disciplines, but following them CAFAM releases the third exhibition, named “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts” (Picture 23). In the foreword of the exhibition it says: “The museum narration of the National Beiping Art School, CAFA and the evolution of 20th century Chinese art, based on museum collection, has reflected the teachers and students’ creative trends, ups and downs in styles at the School and CAFA in different historical phases of 20th century. It starts to touch upon the relationship between the academy and the society, teachers and students and creative trends. In order for the narration to be more inherently logical, and to establish and dig deep into the historical relations between collected works, our museum believes that it is necessary to conduct specialized organization of the establishment of CAFA by merging the National Beiping Art School and the Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts through collection and archives.” The exhibition will further complete the  narration of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition series, and in the meanwhile facilitate explicit expression of CAFA’s relationship with its two predecessors, to form a “comparatively complete thematic museum narration”. The thinking is based upon a macroscopic narration and sincere attitude towards academic studies, and demonstrates CAFAM’s systematicness and sense of responsibility in terms of its public education function.3. Exhibition as a Component of Museum Knowledge CirculationThe National Beiping Art School Exhibition also went through profound and serious academic discussions about other topics relevant to the School. It expands the exhibition’s influence, generates more research subjects, and truly promotes research in this aspect. The Exhibition is no longer isolated, but has become a component of museum knowledge circulation. During the exhibition, two important symposium and semniar were settled: “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium (Picture 24) and “High as Mountains and Long as Rivers: Masters of the National Beiping Art School” seminar (Picture 25). The symposium invited over 40 experts from relevant academic field to speak, the content of which was later edited and published as a book. The seminar includes over ten lectures, each of them was unfolded around an old master from the National Beiping Art School. We have also combined seminars with master and doctor courses, encouraged the students to participate in the seminars and write essays based on the issues and their interested points mentioned in the seminars and the exhibitions. Throughout the development of relevant events, the three exhibitions of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition also continuously brewed and formed a positive cycle.Meanwhile, the Exhibition also practiced CAFAM’s good archiving tradition, editing and publishing the Exhibition’s data and research results. The Exhibition’s publication is not only an exhibition catalogue - it also adds in many works that weren’t exhibited, and significant academic materials that cannot be presented at the exhibition, to make the exhibition’s academic and archival quality more complete. The successive release of the publications also helps preserve and circulate the Exhibition’s research fruits, with they themselves become important research books of the field. It is worth mentioning that CAFAM also produced digital exhibition room for the Exhibition using digital technologies. It recorded the exhibition venue with 360-degree cameras, and linked the exhibition’s information to the visual footage, so that the exhibition’s visual effects could be preserved permanently, and the audience could revisit real site of the exhibition on their computers.A good exhibition shouldn’t be a lecture out of a textbook, but should contain rich thinkings of the curators. It’s like creating an unknown world for the audience to discover themselves. The audience could either achieve something following the route designated by the curators, or discover their own interests and inspirations freely. A good exhibition is not the end point of a research or an isolated event, but should be a transmission shaft that passes on more abundant resources, or a fermenter that incubates more fresh matters.The feature collection exhibition in Chinese museums is only at its beginning stage, and the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is a beneficial experiment. It sturdily completed a thematic series research, pushed forward development of relevant academic fields, and enhanced the public’s knowledge of art in the National Beiping Art School period to a certain extent. In this process, the museum’s curatorial idea was also well represented. Although the content is about works and archives of nearly a century ago, the curatorial idea and approach, as well as the ultimate effect of the exhibition, are new. Picture 1: Poster of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 2: Bus stop light box advertisement design of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 3: Large printing of the photo of the Auditorium of the National Beiping Art School and previous names of the School at all stages, put at the entrance of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 4: Photo wall, archive presentation and seal background at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 5: Entrance of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition (3rd Floor). A scroll painting of the National Beiping Art School collected by CAFAM is used as the main image of the exhibitionPicture 6: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 7: At the entrance (3rd Floor) of the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)”  exhibition. The Chinese inscription of “National Fine Art Academy” by Mao Zedong is used as the main imagePicture 8: On-site photo of the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)”  exhibitionPicture 9: Li Yishi, Portrait of Chen Shizeng, Oil on Canvas, 70x130cm, 1920, Collection of CAFAM (This work is one of the two portrait works of Li Yishi from the 1920s that are known to be left to date. It is a very precious artwork and research material)Picture 10: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 11: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition. The reading table and provided materials at the exhibition are spoken highly of by the audiencePicture 12: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 13: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 14: The National Beiping Art School Chronology compiled by Professor Cao Qinghui, displayed at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 15: Seals of the names of CAFA since its establishment in 1918Picture 16: Photo wall of the valuable photos throughout the history of the National Beiping Art School at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 17: Books collected by the National Beiping Art School Library, displayed at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition; displayed on the upper right corner is the sketch portfolio donated by Zhang Xian in 1936Picture 18: Photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition. The painting in the photo is Qi Baishi’s Eagle donated by the artist to the School in 1935. Displayed on the shelf on the left is Ling Wenyuan’s Discussions on Chinese PaintingsPicture 19: Yu Shaosong’s Fu Tang Lei Gao, displayed at the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 20: The National Beiping Art School Chronology compiled by Professor Cao Qinghui, once again displayed at the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” ExhibitionPicture 21: The “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition collected and collated detailed resume of the artists. Many materials are made public for the first time. All the 34 resumes were shown in the exhibition area for the audience to quickly enter the atmosphere of the National Beiping Art SchoolPicture 22: The “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” Exhibition organized the representative artworks which were created in the early years after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China and cannot be exhibited on site, and displayed them as a video titled “Artworks in Overseas Collections”.Picture 23: The “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” Exhibition displayed Mao Zedong’s inscription of “National Fine Art Academy” in 1949 for the first time as a piece of workPicture 24: “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium was co-held by CAFAM and School of Humanities on April 6, 2013. A group photo was taken after the symposiumPicture 25: “High as Mountains and Long as Rivers: Masters of the National Beiping Art School” seminar was held by CAFAM and School of Humanities in Autumn 2013. It invited renowned scholars in China to conduct lectures on important figures in the history of the National Beiping Art School. The seminar has 10 lectures, and stirred heated discussions.Written by Li Yaochen, Director of Department of Collection, CAFA Art MuseumOriginally published in Issue 6 of University and Art MuseumEdited by Zheng Lijun1. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition has three parts: 1) CAFA Art Museum Collection Series: Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School (November 27, 2012 - April 25, 2013); 2) CAFA Art Museum Collection Series: Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School (June 6, 2013 - December 1, 2013); 3) Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953) (November 4, 2014 - March 1, 2015).2. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition was listed as one of the Outstanding Exhibitions of National Exhibition Season of Brilliant Collection Works from Art Museums in China by the Ministry of Culture.3. Wang Huangsheng (2012), Art Museum as Knowledge Production, p.13, Central Compilation and Translation Press4. Wang Huangsheng (2012), Art Museum as Knowledge Production, p.14, Central Compilation and Translation Press ...More

The Adventure of Leandro Erlich...

2019-07-19 106 people interested

Fram Kitakawa, founder of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale and Setouchi Triennale Leandro Erlich is an artist that aims to jump out of the generic space of galleries and art museums. He tries to break through the space embodied by the 20th-century urban high-rise architectural complex. It is a bold challenge, from which we can comprehend his role in the contemporary era, and the reason behind his popularity.Some people hang themselves upside down on the wall; some cling to the wall; some hang on the wall with one hand; some completely free up their hands. It is in fact an illusion reflected on a glass board set in a 45-degree elevation angle. People are only lying down on the facade placed on the floor. —BuildingThe reflecting mirror placed in front of the real corridor creates an effect that the corridor is endless. — The CorridorThe clouds in the shape of France, Britain and Japanese Archipelago is the aggregation of irregular patterns formed by multi-layered glasses. - The CloudThe elevator is tightly packed, yet meanwhile there’s a strange man standing in it. — Elevator PitchIn the classroom next door, phantom-like people are looking at this side smiling. — The ClassroomI look through the window at the window of the house across the garden, only to see people standing in front of the window looking at a different direction, just like myself. — Lost GardenThe rolling coin operated laundry machine is only an illusionary image. — LaundryEvery room in the opposite building is changing slowly. — The Room (Surveillance II)When I believe I am looking down at the apartment buildings from high above, I am actually only standing on the floor. — La veredaThe wall of an old architecture is floating in the air. — Window & LadderA few boats are floating on the water surface without water, showing the ripples. — Port of ReflectionsAll walks of life can be seen walking under water from above the pool. — Swimming PoolThe changing rooms, originally single rooms, are connected by multiple rooms. The inside can be seen very clearly. — Changing RoomsLight is leaking from beneath the rooms, but as you enter them you will find that they are only walls. — The DoorsOn a sunny day, you look outside the window only to discover violent storms. — RainIn a hair salon, the mirror in front of my reflects a person behind me who shouldn’t exist. — Hair SalonWalking outside, you’ll see a house hanged up in the air. — Pulled by the RootsGeneric space is a predominant idea of the 20th century, or the modern time.  Mies van der Rohe believes that the capital and labor are congregated in the urban area, which leads to a metropolis full of high-rise buildings and composed of steel and glass walls. In fact, cities that develop around high-rise building complex are appearing all over the world, in China, Europe, America and Africa. This kind of space is detached from the multiplex characteristics of life and historical experience, and becomes a void space like laboratory. By changing the dividing wall of a room, a building can be easily transformed into a residency, office or restaurant. There is no more convenient building than the ones with well-adjusted indoor air. People in such space is counted and manipulated as a quantifiable figure.The space has lost the history and culture peculiar to the land, while people are defined by demographic statistics -  this is exactly the viewpoint that shroud the whole world impacted by the global market economy. Art is also developing under the same background. The ‘white box’ exhibition space encircled by white high walls is the space incised from the surrounding, having the same appearance in all countries and regions. This is called spatial balance. In such space, works can purely show their core concept, like in a science laboratory. In here we can clearly understand the jumping thoughts of the artists.However, here lies a big question.Does the ideal abstract space really exist?The problem we are truly facing is the constant deterioration of global environment, the increasing wealth gap one-sidedly created by the market economy controlled by transnational capitalists, and the capitalist moral degeneration resulted from it, leading to the loss of individual sensibility, mechanization and the disappearance of local culture. Since ancient times, artists have been gradually disclosing the relationship between human and nature, and civilization in the midst of the crisis of civilization and at the dawn of new eras. During this process, they use a technique mastered by human.The cave paintings in Altamira and Lascaux are on the one side pray for human’s toil in risking their life capturing middle-sized beasts, and on the other side pray for the pain the captured animals suffered. They embody the united relationship between human and nature. In any subsequent era, art has been the reflection of the relations between nature, society and human. In the vast universe formed accidentally, for the human race born at one moment of the universe, art is the only index of our self-cognition. Without that index human race won’t exist. Like language and literature, art is an index with universal meaning (a very good example is the paintings by the aboriginals). Leandro Erlich tries to break the boundaries by making use of the difference between materials such as glass boards, glass and water, and create boundaries in intangible generic space by using high-quality materials produced in modern industry. This is his creative practice.Everyone is at the terminal point of global information, drowned in all kinds of information, signs and rumors, while believing that we can freely choose and collect certain information. However, they are only the information manipulated within the limit permitted by power, capital and the Internet.These information is fixed in a specific image, and leads to a time that art stops progressing. It seems that we can freely choose from endless information, but the composition and thought pattern are becoming stereotyped.At this time, Leandro Erlich emerged.Either a work is put in Beijing, Johannesburg or London, people can appreciate and understand it in the same way. This is the exhibition standard of 20th century art in white boxes such as galleries and art museums, as well as the 20th century philosophy. Such generic space shares the same character with market economy, international finance and the Internet, and is the most influential (best) idea of the 20th century. It is fair to say that art develops based on generic space.— To judge a thing with the same viewpoint no matter where. —So, in order to transcend the generic space, how does Leandro consider it? Let us take a look at the meaning of Chinese characters, an ancient pictograph.移す (utsusu) →To copy, transcribe, keep and record.映す (utsusu) →To reflect an item’s original look as the light illuminate other items.映す (utsusu) →To duplicate, reprint and copy the original.The three words, with the same etymological origin, changed gradually and form the modern usage of “utsusu” (They share the same Japanese katakana and pronunciation).The different kinds of works by Leandro Erlich, to speak about them in Japanese or write about them in Chinese characters, are to show the context of “utsusu” in a brief and one-time-only place.He seals the space’s time here, like the time sealed in a movie. In his perspective, generic space has become an exceptionally indifferent space without accumulation of time. Thus, his method is to break through his own generic space by transferring a generic space.Modern space is only a thing without the concept of time. Leandro Erlich raised here a theory to generate space by transferring, duplicating and moving the subject. The object changes according to the human (subjects)’s behaviors. This is also the relationship between man and nature since ancient times. In Chinese characters there are homonyms that show turning points. I try to explore this relationship with the different meanings contained in these words. This is what Ernst Mach talked about “”, and the world described in synoptic gospels since ancient time. To simply put it, it is because I have sympathy for the word “stand”, that my reflection in the mirror is standing.I want to talk about the certainty in Leandro Erlich’s creative practice. As he is having his exhibition in Beijing, I would like to elaborate with the “Six Principles of Chinese Painting”, written by Chinese painter and critic Xie He, who lived in the fifth and sixth century, in the preface to his book The Record of the Classification of Old Painters. This is a time that Buddhism was introduced to China from India, as well as a time that ‘art’ itself is questioned as for how it can understand and reflect the nature and society human feel about. At least in Japan, the final destination of Asian culture, ‘Six Principles of Chinese Painting’ is regarded as an important art theory.The basic elements of painting it raised have also been applied outstandingly in modern art.Correspondence to the Object: the modeling abilitySuitability to Type: color perceptionDivision and Planning: space compositionThese elements are what Leandro Erlich, who was born in an architects’ family, best at, and the reasons why his works are vivid and easy to understand.Transmission by Copying: mastering of the classic, or the forefathers’ achievementSuch learning pattern could ensure the modernity of his works. In other words, it offers the audience a new spatial experience. From here we can see Leandro Erlich’s knowledgeability.Bone Method: the unique technique and feeling of the artistBased on the above-mentioned, as I talked about Leandro Erlich’s personal art concept earlier, he is creating a void in homogeneous space by “transferring, copying and reflecting”, and thus creating a new and rich space. The aforementioned five principles can be obtained with practice, except for the last one which is Spirit Resonance.This is the conversation between the work and the audience. In other words, it  points to the realization of a new spatial experience. What Xie He believes is that the overall energy of a work of art may impact the audience. It is full of vitality as if it has the power to shake mountains and rivers. And to judge if a work has that energy, we should see if it has the overall vitality. It seems that Leandro Erlich has such works with spirit resonance.In Buenos Aires, Leandro Erlich’s hometown, there’s a public work named The Democracy of the Symbol. The work covered the top of the city’s iconic monument, and showcased the duplicate of the top in front of the museum. The work seems to be “hidden” before “transferred”, but it is actually made separately after the original was hidden. Although I haven’t been to Buenos Aires, but I heard that it’s a popular place for dating lovebirds and protesting people. Society, politics and power co-exist in this place. Since ancient Greece, squares have been a place for people to voice themselves, sometimes they could also be place of suppression. What does the embodiment mean here? Leandro Erlich lives in South America, but his thought penetrates the whole modern time. It reminds people of Christo’s  artwork ‘Wrapped Reichstag’, or Eisenstein’s movie Battleship Potemkin. Homogeneous city also rises with the support of power. For modern people, can the art museums completely be a place of freedom? This remains to be questioned.Moreover, in Japanese countryside Echigo-Tsumari, in an exchange museum designed by Hiroshi Hara that reminds people of oasis in a desert, Leandro Erlich created a building similar to the structure of urban architecture in the wading pool, as if he was criticizing the modern civilization by “transferring, duplicating and reflecting” the constantly extending modern generic space. People can see the building reflected on the water from the balcony, and can also go into the pool to have fun. He started to move his creative place to squares and countryside, one step closer to the nature which is suffering from destructions.20th century is filled with symbolized information, programmed human and stereotyped space, while Leandro Erlich initiated a bold adventure, trying to break through the leading generic space with the power of art. He’s like Don Quixote who longs to time travel to the Middle Ages, or a modern-time warrior. Leandro Erlich was born in the middle of South America of the old time. Just like Garcia Marquez trying to create a world that overthrows European and North American values with literature, he tries to create a world with his artworks - from the white cubic of galleries and museums to squares that stand for civil society, his footsteps extend to the gradually degenerating, formalizing cities. Let us keep an eye on his adventures.Written by Fram Kitakawa, founder of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale and Setouchi Triennale Translated by Liu YanchaoProofread by Lu YufanEdited by Zheng Lijun ...More

Zhang Zikang: Leandro Erlich - --Begin from Amazementing, the Game of Seeing and Believinge...

2019-07-19 95 people interested

Zhang Zikang, Director of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine ArtsCAFA Art MuseumThe Art Museum of Central Academy of Fine Arts(CAFAM) held a solo exhibition for the well-respected artist Leandro Erlich. The exhibition, titled ‘Leandro Erlich: The Confines of the Great Void’, is, which is the mostanother important onesolo exhibition of the artist’s after the onehis solo exhibition in Karlsruhe Art and Media CenterZKM in, 2015in Germany, and anotherthe one in MoriArt Museum, 2017 in Tokyo Japan. in 2017.Prior to this, Leandro’s artworks has attracted massive attention of manytheaudiences all over the world. Through the fermentation of the Internet and social media, his work has reached a wider audience, inspired them to produce numerous photos and interactions on social media. In some sense, the concept of Leandro’s artwork ishas been betterfinished by the participation of the audience. His work also makes people realize that the form of art is being changed by both the audience and the artists, in such a deep interaction with the public. I think this is where the unique charm of Leandro’s art work lies. Through his art work, we get the chance to think about contemporary art and its exhibitions, and about how to form a new viewing relationship with the audience under the catalysis of the new media culture. Losst, vagueness, perceptual confusion---these are the feelings that Leandro’s artworks often brings to the audience. As Leandro said, there is a wide experimental field between seeing and believing. With the spatialpsychologicalsubversion of the ordinary space, such as spatial displacement and architectural illusion, Leandro explores the misplaced problem of the existence ofthe fuzzy boundary betweenexistential reality and consciousness, creates a situation in which the reality and the illusory overlap, and triggers the audience to rethinkthe perception andits diversity.  In order to best express the concepts he wants to elaborate, media and visual forms such as installations, ready-made products, sculptures, videos and even paintings have been adopted by Leandro, and he has successfully created many cultural landscapes that challenge our perception ofperceptual inertia. In Chinese proverbs, thereThere is a sayingin Chinese called “Seeing is believinge”, but Leandro’s artworks makes us feel that “seeing might not be believing”, because this visual artist who was born on the South American continent has made usnaturallymade us wonder ifthink thatthe South American’s magical realistm cultural genes have deeply influenced him. His works have provided a possibility that what we see might not be real.In Leandro’s work, there are many places without clear boundaries--- a Pool that seems to descend from the skyappear out of nowhere, a house that is Pulled up by the RootsUprootedfrom the ground, a closed DoorThe Doors with light leaking from the crackbeneath,a few boats that float on the water that looks like mirror etc. These daily scenes evoke the viewer’s’ sense of reality, like an entrance to “heterotopia”. It echoes tois similar towhat Lao TzuLaozi said, “There is something concrete in the emptiness and there is something real in the ambiguity.”, across two distant cultural time and space. The combination of reality and representation brings illusion to the audience, confusing the direct perception of the human eyes, bringing the audience into the imaginary world which is full of mirroring images.Wherever Leandro Ehrlich’s work goes, there will always be a carnival that embraces visual art. His humor is sharp, and the surprise is just a prelude.In the process of slowly unfoldingAs the storyslowly unfolds, the many pendulumshints he has buriedleft for us are worthy of ourcareful subtle taste.pondering.Written by Co-curator: Zhang Zikang, Director of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine ArtsCAFA Art MuseumTranslated by Liu YanchaoProofread by Lu YufanEdited by Zheng Lijun ...More

美术学院陈列馆与沙龙:博物馆展览制度考...

2019-06-19 88 people interested

内容提要:作为作者研究博物馆起源问题的艺术史系列考辩之一,本文钩沉抉微,以大量史实阐述了美术学院的教学实践活动,在形成现代博物馆收藏和展览制度方面的关键作用;通过分析法国王家美术学院沙龙展览环境的演变,以公众问题为核心,揭示了一场从十八世纪开始一直迄今的社会与文化转型。关键词:学院;沙龙;收藏制度;展览制度;法则;公众问题有意思的是,正是在美术学院问题上,古代的“mouseion”(缪司神庙)与近代的“Museum”(博物馆)第一次形成一个微妙的交集。根据历史学家汉金斯(J.Hankins)的研究,文艺复兴时期的“Academy”一词具有以下七种含义:①古代英雄阿喀德穆斯(Academus)所在的小树林,它赋予了柏拉图在附近创立的学园以Academy的名称;②引申义,指柏拉图创立的哲学学派;③私立的人文主义学校;④对中世纪大学(university)的一种古典化的称谓;⑤泛义,指任何文人之间的聚会;⑥供作文学和哲学研究的房子和别墅;⑦柏拉图全集[1]。一方面,正如本书第一章所指出的,柏拉图仿效了毕达哥拉斯学派的mouseion(缪司神庙)创立了他的哲学教育机构Academy(学园),因而Academy与mouseion之间一脉相承,二者在性质上都是哲学家聚会的场所;而在文艺复兴时期也不例外,它指“任何文人之间的聚会”(可以意译为“学苑”);另一方面,也恰如我们在本书第三章澄清的那样,文艺复兴时期的“博物馆”作为一个收藏品空间,与mouseion所代表的“博物馆”的本义毫不相干,但后者与文艺复兴时期的Academy(学苑)则形神相通。因而,在文艺复兴时期,任何文人间自由聚会形成的“academies”,都可说是古代“mouseions”的复活。到了1560年之后,意大利各地诞生的这类“academies”(或“mouseions”),其数量已达到了十分惊人的地步——据不同统计,一共在“500”至“2200”个之间[2]。而在这众多的“academies”中间,创立于1563年的佛罗伦萨设计学院(Academia del disegno)占据着一个十分特殊的位置。 佛罗伦萨设计学院开启先河 与绝大部分作为文人自由聚会性质的“academies”(学苑)相比,佛罗伦萨设计学院具有双重性:它既是艺术家自由组合的产物,又是一个官方的资质和教学机构[3];从上述意义上讲,它倾向于第一次把博物馆分离的两种含义(交流的论坛和收藏品的空间),同时集合为一体。在新成立的学院的章程中,正如佩夫斯纳所说,佛罗伦萨设计学院作为“现代美术学院发展的起点”,具有“两个独立的目标”:“建立一个置于大公特殊庇护下的佛罗伦萨重要艺术家的社团”是它的“首要目标”,而 “初学者的教育问题” 则牵涉到它的第二个目标[4]。前一个目标在学院中形成了一个类似于“院士”的艺术家团体,被称为“Capi”(长辈);后一个目标则形成了一个学生团体,被称作“Giovanni”(晚辈)。“长辈”对“晚辈”负有教学的义务。但重要的是,两个目标都涉及某些用于展出与陈列艺术品的公共空间。首先,章程提到要在学院的一个小礼拜堂里,为奇马布埃迄今的著名艺术家建立一个肖像画廊;还要为全体成员建一个图书馆,里面保存学院成员的素描、样稿和建筑规划图;章程第三十条还建议,应该在该小礼拜堂附近存放“艺术家留赠的完满的或不尽完满的作品”,这些场地或用于展示作品、或用于研究作品、或用于观摩和比较作品的得失成败。其次,章程第三十四条规定,“每年圣路加节时……应该为优秀学生组织小型展览”;每位优秀学生有权利在其中展出一件素描或浅浮雕作品,展览则对公众开放。而到了1564年,佛罗伦萨设计学院确实组织了第一届公开展览,用于陈列根据米开朗琪罗的速写而重新绘制的绘画。该展览除了用来纪念大师米开朗琪罗之外,还附带着向艺术爱好者出售作品的意图。展览被命名为“初学者沙龙展”(Salone degli Innocenti),以后每五年举办一次。1567年这一年,在展出的25幅作品中,就有17件售出[5]。我们发现,虽然上述空间没有博物馆之名,但似乎涉及到了一个现代博物馆的全部机构。例如,肖像画廊类似于现代博物馆的固定陈列;图书馆和小礼拜堂附近的存放所类似于现代博物馆的基本收藏,而“初学者沙龙”则类似于它的临时陈列!而所有在这里出现的艺术品都具有一个共同的特征,即它们不是为了收藏,而是为了展出被汇聚在一起;即使存在着收藏,那么,收藏的目的也是为了供人观赏、学习和研究,总之,是为了服务于某种教学的目的。这一特征形成了与同一时期盛行的“奇珍室”收藏迥然不同的旨趣。如果说,“奇珍室”收藏以其包罗万象的宏观视野代表着欧洲君主们觊觎世界的政治诉求,那么,美术学院的陈列空间则完全服务于现代意义的公共教育目的——在这里,不是物品的攫取而是人际的交流、不是收藏而是展览、不是积累而是消费变成了目的。虽然佛罗伦萨设计学院本身并非一所现代意义的美术学院[6],虽然它的设想多半流于形式,并没有付诸实施,而它在事实上也从未建立起一所真正意义上的博物馆,但它确实围绕着教学的目的,在理论上(部分在实践上)为建立一个集收藏、陈列与展览于一身的现代博物馆体系,作了最初的尝试。差不多要在一百年之后,随着法国王家绘画与雕塑学院的诞生,佛罗伦萨设计学院的初步探索才会结出真正的硕果。 法国王家绘画与雕塑学院的收藏制度 1648年,“以罗马的绘画与雕塑学院,即著名的圣路加学院为榜样”[7],法国王家绘画与雕塑学院(Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture)建立。几年之后颁布的新章程显示,学院的主要目的是教学,其中规定了教授要讲授几何学、透视法、解剖学,还要“布置模特儿”供学生写生;此外,教授还要就绘画与雕塑的相互关系问题,在学院全体大会上作专题讲演。章程还涉及一项为通过素描竞赛的学生授奖的内容,到了1564年,该奖项发展为资助获奖的学生赴罗马研修四年的制度。  这些内容在意大利、尤其是佛罗伦萨设计学院中都已萌芽,但只有到了法国的学院中才得以系统化和具体落实。例如,法国学院为学生制定了一份需要严格执行的课程时刻表(如人体写生课在夏季于上午6时-8时进行,在冬季则于下午3时-5时进行),而课程则遵循一个清晰的循序渐进的逻辑(如从临摹版画复制品开始,再到素描和绘画,最后是人体写生);理论课则在此期间平行进行(星期二上透视课,星期六上解剖课)。学院还总结了绘画艺术的“四项基本原则”:线条、光影明暗、色彩和人物表现[8],这些原则奠定了迄今为止世界上大绝大多数美术学院的教学基础。尤其是,为了满足教学的目的,学院还制定了一些行之有效的与展览和收藏相关的制度。首先是关于收藏的制度。法国学院的收藏包括复制品、学生获奖作品和院士入选作品三部分,在这三方面,学院都制定了明确的政策。正如前述,法国学院的教学首先是从复制品开始的。1649年,仅仅在学院成立一年之后,解剖课教授波士(Abraham Bosse)出版了一部题名为《论绘画、素描和版画的不同手法,以及原作与复制品之间的差异》的书,对学院的教学理念作了第一次公开表述[9]。书中这样规定了学生的入学次第:先临摹文艺复兴和古代大师作品的版画复制品(图1),然后是现代大师的素描,再就古代浮雕和圆雕的复制品进行练习,再过渡到人体模特儿写生。这里,除了最后一个阶段人体写生之外,对复制品的临摹占据了学生就学的主要内容。图1 1725年沙龙 卢浮宫方形沙龙这些复制品的第一部分内容是版画。它们从文艺复兴开始到现代复制技术(如摄影)发明之前,是艺术品最主要的传播手段之一。这些版画主要复制的是古代大师的作品,同时也有一部分授课教师的作品,如波士就在他的书后附上一些他自己的作品,以供学生们模仿(图2)。图2 1699年沙龙 卢浮宫大画廊而其中最为主要的部分是古代雕塑的复制品。鉴于巴黎距古代文化的中心地罗马十分遥远,法国学生学习古代艺术的唯一方式非复制品莫属。事实上,到了1666年,法国之所以要在罗马建立一所王家绘画与雕塑学院的分院,其主要意图至少在当时是出于方便购买和复制古代作品,因为当时的罗马学院除了房产之外一无所有(既无教师亦无教学规划)。而学生们的主要日常工作也是复制古代雕塑(既是为了学习古代造型技法,也是为了给在巴黎的母校提供必要的教具)。这种做法属于当时法国政府针对意大利的总体政策的组成部分,这在首相柯尔贝的一句名言里体现得淋漓尽致:“我们应该努力让法国拥有意大利一切最美的东西”[10],而在1679年致罗马学院的首任院长埃拉尔(Charles Errard)的一封信中,科尔贝要求后者把这些“最美的东西”如“人像、胸像、古代瓮瓶和绘画”都清点成册,然后在名单的边缘“标出哪些作品已经复制过,哪些还有待于复制,不管是用绘画还是雕塑的形式”[11]。在这种政策鼓励下,罗马学院不久就塞满了它的学生们复制的古代作品,内容涉及到当时所能见到的所有重要的古代雕塑,而数量则超过了一百件,以至于当这些雕塑被运回法国后,一位罗马学院院长甚至怀疑,罗马学院本身是否还有存在的必要性。需要指出,这些被运回法国的复制品具有双重功能:它们中的一部分进入了巴黎王家美术学院的收藏,服务于教学目的;另一部分则被运到正在兴建中的凡尔赛宫,作为宫苑的装饰。当国王的做法与学院的教学发生冲突的时候,学院就会委托他的保护人——首相柯尔贝——去与国王斡旋,结果往往是,某件作品或以出借或以赠送的形式,进入了学院的收藏[12]。尽管与国王的占有欲相比,学院的要求并非总能实现,但上述事例告诉我们,学院的教学有时是如何建立在有效利用王家收藏的基础之上,换句话说,即使是王家的收藏,有时也具有教学功能。这一线索在王家美术学院以后的历史发展中会日形明显,尤其是1692年,当学院搬迁到了卢浮宫之后。学院占据了卢浮宫二层的方形沙龙(Salon carré)和周围的房间。但它却把一层著名的“女像柱厅”(salle des Cariatides)和“沐浴套间”(appartement des bains)利用为自己的展厅,在里面存放学院的藏品,包括古物和罗马学院学生的古代雕塑复制品。而此时,正是卢浮宫的收藏突飞猛进之时。路易十四委托柯尔贝和首席画师兼王家学院院长勒布朗(Le Brun)照管藏品,同时在全欧大量购入新作。从1660年至1715年间,王室的绘画收藏从200件上升到了2000件,一跃成为欧洲最重要的绘画收藏。这些收藏在布置上具备了一定的展览意识:绘画作品主要悬挂在“国王收藏室”(Cabinet du roi),而古代雕塑和复制品则沿着女像柱展开[13]——值得注意的是,在同一个地方,王室和学院的收藏并置在了一起!从某种意义上说,王室和学院正在共同形成一种收藏:为学院学生和来自各地的艺术爱好者服务的收藏。当然,学院不仅仅只是利用王室的收藏,它自己也构成了丰富的艺术品收藏。这种收藏主要是两部分——学生的获奖作品和教授(学院院士)的资格认证作品。如果说,在早期美术学院中,复制品收藏因为起着类似于模具、准则和尺度的作用而构成教学不可或缺的基础的话,那么,它的师生作品则充分体现了该学院在教学和研究上所结出的丰硕成果。王家学院对学生作品的收藏附属于它评选和奖励学生制度的一部分。一般而言,学生入学期间设有二种不同形式的竞赛。第一种是称为“小奖”(Petits Prix)的学院奖,一年举办四次;第二种就是大名鼎鼎的“大奖”(Grand Prix),又称“罗马奖”(Prix de Rome),每年举办一次。两种竞赛都设置了三个阶段循序渐进的考试。“小奖”包括素描、命题构图和根据构图完成创作(油画或雕塑)。“大奖”则遵循一种“极端形式的巴罗克式程序,繁琐而复杂”[14],大致内容如下:第一阶段要作一幅油画草图;第二阶段改画油画人体写生;最后一个阶段又分成两部分:先作一幅素描草稿,然后完成一幅大型油画创作(113.7cm×146.5cm)。整个考试过程长达106天,即使与同一时期中国的科举考试相比亦不遑多让。但从100位考生中突破重围、脱颖而出的幸运者获得的唯一奖赏,仅仅是被派赴罗马公费学习4年。实际上,获得罗马奖并不必然保证艺术家的最终成功——我们从获奖者的大名单上,只看到了寥寥无几大艺术家的名字[15]——,然而桂冠的象征价值要远远大于其实际利益,这是因为,获奖作为十八、十九世纪艺术家所能想象的最高荣誉,这种象征价值只有放在那个时代新近出现的公共空间里才能实现;因为获奖、尤其是随之而来作品被学院的展出和收藏,使得获奖艺术家及其作品第一次置身于一个公共空间里,成为公众关注的焦点,使他们如同旗帜般招展,成为年轻艺术家竞相效仿的榜样。学院的第三个收藏目标是院士(académiciens)的作品。从学院建立伊始,学院就努力于建构一项有关学院院士作品的收藏,这可以被看作是瓦萨里创办的佛罗伦萨设计学院传统的延续。但这项建立在自愿基础上的政策收效甚微,以至于学院不得不规定:今后凡欲申请成为学院院士的艺术家,必须把提交委员会评选的作品(被称作“morceaux de réception”),在评选之后留赠给学院以建立收藏。开始的时候要求艺术家自己负担作品装框的费用,这意味着,艺术家在被接纳为院士之后,他的入选作品其实还没有成为学院所有,结果导致很多艺术家未能履行自己应尽的义务。后来很快做出了相应的调整,新的政策规定:艺术家必须在作品同时在场的情况下,才能被评定为院士。这样,学院才开始拥有相当数量的院士收藏[16]。随着收藏的递增,学院甚至想到过,要为专门“描绘国王(路易十四)历史事迹”的入选作品,编制一部版画复制品集;从1684年开始,还有一些艺术家在学院全体大会上作讲座时,也开始选择院士入选作品作为分析讲评的案例[17]。以上讨论的是法国王家美术学院的收藏制度。但是正如前述,既然美术学院收藏的根本目的在于服务于教学,因而,在严格的意义上说,收藏制度本身只有联系到它的功能与目的,也就是展览和展览制度才能说明它自己;换句话说,只有把收藏制度看成是从属于展览制度的一个组成部分,才能说明其存在的理由和意义。正是在十七世纪的法国,在王家美术学院中,诞生了欧洲历史上第一个现代美术展览制度。这项诞生于十七世纪法国的“制度创新”,随着它在欧洲范围的扩展进而影响到了全世界,奠定了我们今天所熟悉的一切博物馆、画廊和博览会现代展览制度的真正基础。 法国王家绘画与雕塑学院的展览制度 法国王家美术学院的展览制度包括两方面的内容。第一项内容可以说是直接从收藏制度中延伸出来的,涉及对收藏的固定布置和陈列。正如前述,搬迁到卢浮宫的王家学院已经拥有了自己的展厅,它们坐落于卢浮宫一层的“女像柱厅”和“沐浴套间”,里面陈列着学院的固定藏品,包括古物和罗马学院学生复制的古代雕塑等等。与欧洲同类学院相比,王家学院拥有最早、最丰富的复制品收藏。但作为一个教学、研究单位,学院并不以收藏见长。它在固定陈列方面的主要特点,在于它的藏品随时为教学研究服务。值得一提的是,学院还懂得在自己的收藏之外,善用卢浮宫的优势。卢浮宫内有两处王室艺术品集聚地:“女像柱厅”陈列古代雕像,“国王收藏室”悬挂大师绘画。按照柯尔贝的规划,学院每个月都要安排一次艺术讲座;在讲座时,教授可以自由利用王室的收藏,或进行现场讲解,或加以挪用。由于“女像柱厅”的收藏事实上已经与学院的展厅合一,再加上又能随意借用“国王收藏室”的绘画收藏,这样一来,学院虽然只是寓居于卢浮宫一角,但它却利用教学之便,几乎使整个卢浮宫及其庞大的收藏,变成了它自己的美术陈列馆!王家美术学院展览制度的第二项内容是它所制定的临时展览政策,这一方面的内容才是真正的“制度创新”。其实在前述的学生评奖制度中,都已包含着相应的展览政策。“小奖”的评选每年四次,每次按照素描、构图和创作(油画或雕塑)的程序进行。“大奖”则每年举行一次,每次限100人。“大奖”的程序稍不同于“小奖”,在于它是学生所学知识的一个全面的测试,所以要求学生在考试的第一阶段就画油画草图;第二阶段则进行油画人体写生;第三阶段又分成两部分:先画一幅素描草稿,然后根据所作的草稿创作一幅大型油画。无论是“小奖”还是“大奖”评选,在它们各自三个阶段的考试过程中,都要伴随着作品的公开陈列和展览——这些展览正是我们今天所熟悉的美术学院“学生作品展”和“获奖作品展”最早的渊源。与之相仿的是院士评选,同样形成相应的“院士入选作品展”。由于学生完成学业之际即可申请参加院士评选,从某种意义上讲,这种展览也是今天的“学生毕业展”的前身。展览的方式则按照古典主义理论家菲利比安(Félibien)制定的绘画等级制进行,相应分成“历史画”、“肖像画”、“动物画”、“风景画”和“风俗画”几类。这些展览构成了学院日常生活不可或缺的组成部分,其中每一个环节的得失都会牵动学院上下无数师生的神经,关系到他们浮沉升迁的命运。我们今天保留了当年很多应试者“范进中举”般的悲喜故事,这一方面就连最伟大的大师也有脆弱的一面。例如著名画家大卫在1774年角逐罗马奖成功之前,就有过三次失败和一次自杀的经历。这些展览最鲜明的特色在于它的程序化意识,即把艺术教育分解为素描、构图、草图、色彩和创作等不同的阶段,再把阶段成果以展览的形式加以总结。在今天的人们看来,由于它们与今天的美术学院存在着过多的相似性,因而,除了意识到后者对前者的承袭关系之外,我们很难真正认识它们在十七、十八世纪的开拓性意义,认识它们对于现代美术(不仅仅是教育)观念的传播所作的重大贡献。事实上,虽然这些展览只限于在校园内发生影响,但作为由公共机构组织的唯一公益(教育)性艺术展览,它们一方面通过在法国各地建立的分院制度和通过对欧洲各国美术学院的示范作用,另一方面借助于教育本身滚雪球般的效应,很快就使自己的成果成为全欧——然而又通过资本主义和殖民主义的全球扩展——成为全球共享的文化资源。新近的学术研究已经开始关注相关的问题。1981年,哈斯克尔和派尼合作出版了一部重要著作《趣味与古物——古典雕塑之光》(Taste and the Antique. The Lure of Classical Sculpture),书后附了一份大约一百多件古代雕塑的名单,包括《望景楼的阿波罗》、《拉奥孔》、《挑刺的男孩》、《法尔内赛的赫拉克勒斯》、《美第奇的维纳斯》,以及稍后的《米洛的维纳斯》等。两位作者认为,从1500年到1900年间,西方人关于艺术的趣味,是从少数古典雕塑开始,通过这些雕塑的辗转易手,尤其是通过复制品(版画、青铜、大理石和石膏)制作的方式,得以逐渐形成并广泛传播的[18]。此书如今已成为研究西方艺术趣味形成史的一部经典读物;正如作者在法文版前言中不无自负地说,其后出版的著作的意义,将是“对我们著作的补充”——诚然。但在我们看来,另外一个尚需要补足的方面,还在于它欠缺了对于美术学院的教学(尤其是在利用复制品方面)在上述趣味史的形成过程中作用的分析。例如,法国王家美术学院在当时不仅建立欧洲最丰富的复制品收藏,而且也对复制品进行了最充分的研究。这些研究往往构成了王家学院专题艺术讲座(Conférences)的主题(仅仅是关于《拉奥孔》像的研究讲座就有过好几次)。在这些研究中贯穿着一种精神,充满着对古代作品的细节、整体及其相互关系的一种数学的关注——换言之,即对凝聚在古代雕塑中理性法则的重视。正是这种精神决定了法国学院素描教学的方法:以极端的精确性对古典雕塑作一部分乃至全体的研究,用画家布尔东(Sébastian Bourdon)的话说,即用“手充圆规”[19]。这种做法集中体现在一位院士奥德兰(Gérard Audran)于1683年出版的一部书《按照最美的古代雕塑测量的人体比例》(Les Proportions du corps humain mesurées sur les plus belles figures de l’antiquité)中,书名本身就说明了一切。书中的插图显示,区别于意大利文艺复兴艺术中惯用的有机比例尺度,在法国学院中盛行的是对于古代雕塑中实际存在尺度的关注:比如,它用数字标出了从下巴到鼻子、从鼻子到前额的具体长度[20](图3)。在这种意义上,法国学院派和古典主义所追求的“理想美”(beau idéal),就并不是柏拉图式虚无缥缈的“理念”,而是完全可学可求的“法则”;它实际上就存在于古代雕塑中,存在于按照尺度创作的大师作品中。法国学院大量举办展览的用意正在这里,正是要从一大批平庸之作中,把那些近乎“完美”的作品凸现出来,赋予它们以荣誉,并让它们成为人们学习的榜样。图3 奥德兰 《皮同的阿波罗头像局部》 1683不仅仅素描有尺度,其它各个方面——色彩、构图、创作——概莫能外,都有相应的尺度;而能够最充分、最完整地体现学院的艺术标准和教学理念的,莫过于学院的另一位成员于1708年出版的一部著作——《绘画原理教程》(Cours de peinture par principe)[21]。《绘画原理教程》是根据罗杰·德·皮莱斯(Roger de Piles)于1700年起在王家美术学院上课的讲稿出版的。作者本人是法国鲁本斯派的理论家,在当时更以《色彩对话录》(Dialogue sur le coloris,1673)的作者而著称;在这部早期著作中,德·皮莱斯把色彩与素描对立起来,扬鲁本斯而贬普桑,在法国掀起了以自己为代表的鲁本斯派,与以当时的王家学院院长勒布朗为代表的普桑派的激烈论战。在勒布朗死后,德·皮莱斯于1699成为学院的成员,此时论战以鲁本斯派的胜利告终。同年,德·皮莱斯出版了一部《画家简史》(Abrégé de la vie des peintres),该书提出了根据“画派”来区分绘画的新历史观,并对以后的艺术市场拍卖图录的编撰和博物馆陈列观念产生影响。而在《绘画原理教程》一书中,忝为院士的德·皮莱斯并没有像人们想当然的那样唯“色彩” 是尊,而是像他为画家区分画派那样,颇为全面地就绘画提出了四项标准:“构图”(Composition)、“素描”(Dessin)、“色彩”(Coloris)和“人物表现”(Expression)。虽然时间上相隔遥远,但这些三百年前提出的标准在今天的美术学院(例如中央美术学院)中并没有失去它的有效性。除此之外,该书中最让人津津乐道的地方还在于,德·皮莱斯为当时已知的57位绘画大师制作了一个称为“画家品第”(La balance des peintres)的表格。 该表格的制作方式仿佛取自作者在学院当教授的经历,与我们今天所熟悉的学生成绩单无异。表格的第一栏是根据字母顺序排列的画家名录,以后四栏的内容则分别是上述的四项标准,每一项标准相当于每位画家需要应试的一门课程;而在与每位画家和课程相应的空格中,则由德·皮莱斯填上他们得到的成绩;此外,分数的给出也依照了法国学校评定学生成绩的分值,从0分一直到20分。 在这份“成绩单”上,没有出现任何一个20分,因为20分代表古典主义最高的完美,迄今为止尚未有人完全达到过;19分是所知道的最高分值,但也无人得到;只有18分是最接近于完美的分数。我们这里看到的恰恰是一个古典主义的等级制序列:“完美”虽然邈若云天,但并不是无法企及的;它仍然只是一个具体的标准,怪只能怪应试者功亏一篑。在这张“成绩单”上,每个人的成绩都不尽相同。比方说,在“色彩”上,乔尔乔纳、提香两位威尼斯画家得到了最高的18分,但其它分数却很低——乔尔乔纳在“人物表现”上只得了4分,提香也只有6分;米开朗琪罗在“素描”上得分很高(17分),但他的“色彩”分却少得可怜(4分,与另一位素描大师达芬奇并列)。相比之下,反而是拉斐尔的综合得分不俗,他的最低分是“色彩” ,12分,其它的都在17-18分之间。但是,在这张“成绩单”上,每个人在成为了数字方面都是相同的。我们看到,所有大师无一例外,都要接受“艺术”这个法官的打分。在此,“艺术”完全“数字”化了!任何大师都不能凌驾于“数字”之上。这种“数字”代表的正是艺术的“法则”(或德·皮莱斯的“原理”)。新近的研究指出,法国学院派之所以要把古典艺术分解为各种单元加以学习和掌握,并不仅仅是为了获得一种古典的品味,而是旨在提炼出“一种形式的语言”[22]。我们知道,对于艺术的抽象“法则”的提炼、总结与规范,再推广到全欧乃至全世界,正是法国王家美术学院和以后的学院派对艺术史所作的最大贡献。然而,这张大师作业“成绩单”之所以能够完成,德·皮莱斯之所以能够分门别类地给大师打分,并不是因为事先存在着一个抽象的艺术“法则”,而是因为事先存在着大量以“构图”、“素描”、“色彩”和“人物表现”方式分类的“试卷”,摆放在评判者的眼前——无论它们是原作、是复制品,抑或是真的试卷(例如在学院的评奖过程中);换句话说,在评判者评判之前,这些“试卷”必须已经在某个空间环境里经过了长期的陈列和展出,这样才能为人熟知、供人评判。因而,一个合乎逻辑的推理是,艺术的“法则”之所以能够建立,必然是以艺术品的收藏、陈列和展出为前提的。而在事实上,上面的逻辑推理只有反过来才是正确的——恰恰是王家学院长期实行了陈列和展出艺术品的制度,才从中诞生了学院派艺术的“法则”。           沙龙的“制度创新” 然而相比起来,只有王家美术学院的另一项临时展览政策才算得上真正的“制度创新”,因为它一开始就超越了学院樊篱,具有更深远的社会、政治与文化含义。这就是王家美术学院于1667年开始定期举办的“沙龙”美展。1986年出版的中文版《简明不列颠百科全书》对“沙龙”的定义如下:“沙龙Salon法国政府主办的官方艺术展览会。创始于1667年,当时路易十四主办了一个皇家绘画雕塑学院院士的作品展览会。由于作品陈列在巴黎罗浮宫内的阿波罗沙龙(阿波罗厅),故习用了沙龙这个名称。1737年之后,沙龙艺术展览会定为每年举行一次,改变了不定期展出的办法。1748年起选择作品实行评定制度。法国大革命后,虽然学院派仍然左右着十九世纪所举办的绝大多数展览会,但沙龙却第一次面向法国的所有画家。1881年法国艺术家协会的成立,沙龙展览改由协会负责举办;其后先锋派艺术家作品独立展出,日益受到重视,沙龙的影响和声誉即趋衰落”。[23]上述定义对“沙龙”作了一个非常精简的说明,但需要做两个重要的史实修订:第一,所谓“沙龙”是对于法国王家美术学院开启的一项拥有214年历史(1667-1881)的美术展览制度的简称,它的正式名称来自于从1725年开始举办展览的地点——卢浮宫的“方形沙龙”(Salon carré)(图4),即今天的“阿波罗厅”(Salon Apollon),位于“大画廊”(Grande Galerie)与“阿波罗画廊”(Galerie d’Apollon)交界处。第二,1667年王家美术学院举办第一次沙龙美展的地点并不是“阿波罗沙龙”,而是当时的学院所在地布里翁府邸(hotel Brion);从第二次沙龙开始转移到位于卢浮宫对面的“罗亚尔宫”(Palais Royale,意为“王宫”);直到1699年,沙龙展才改在卢浮宫举办,但具体场所仍然不是“阿波罗沙龙”,而是“大画廊”(图5)——它作为“沙龙”的历史要到1725年迁址到“方形沙龙”开始。图4 1725年沙龙 卢浮宫方形沙龙图5 1699年沙龙 卢浮宫大画廊以上考证的目的在于说明一个事实:早期沙龙的展览环境经历了一个持续改善的过程,而在这种改善背后蕴含着深刻的社会意义。事实上,除了第一次之外,早期沙龙在罗亚尔宫柱廊的露天环境里举办,正如当时一位见证者所说,恶劣的天气,经常会“迫使画家们因为害怕作品受损,顾不上满足公众的好奇心就撤走作品”;[24]而1699年,随着沙龙迁往卢浮宫,展览条件——实质是观众观赏的条件——终于得到了保证。正是在这种意义上,艺术史家托马斯·克罗(Thomas E.Crow)认为,1699年的展览是“一次公众的胜利”。[25]随着18世纪的到来,一种新型的观众——公众——登上了历史舞台。但一开始,学院并没有明确的“公众政策”。根据1663年学院新章程的规定,每逢学院院士聚会之时(这个时间被预定在每年7月的第一个星期六),艺术家们仅被要求“携带自己挑选的若干作品,用以装饰学院的场地几天时间,届时若他们觉得合适,就可以随时撤走作品”。这种仅限于学院内部又缺乏强制性的政策并没有得到艺术家的响应,预定中的展览一拖再拖,直到4年之后的1667年,第一届沙龙才在学院的议事厅勉强召开。随后就是在“王宫”柱廊展出的惨淡岁月。真正的“公众政策”是从1699年沙龙展搬迁到卢浮宫的“大画廊”开始的。它以书面的形式出现在学院伴随着展览出版并向公众出售的“导览手册”(Livret)中——明确地写道,组织展览的目的,在于“复兴先前曾有过的向公众(public)展出作品的习惯,以获取公众的反响,并促进对美术来说十分必要的艺术家之间的有益竞争”。[26]这种说法空前地第一次把“获取公众的反响”(avoir son jugement,直译为“获取公众的判断力”)提升到促进美术繁荣的高度;但沙龙的策划者们事实上还隐瞒了组织展览的另外一个目的,一个对于美术繁荣也许更为重要的目的,而这在1704年沙龙“导览手册”上才略显端倪:“学院一直被告诫说,它只有经常性地展出学院院士创作的绘画与雕塑作品,才能让人们了解它是如何全身心地投身于完善美术的事业。学院知道,尽管它创作的大部分作品都用于装饰教堂和宫殿的雄伟壮丽,但它并不能阻碍有相当一部分作品旨在流入私人收藏室(les cabinets),这样一来,它们即刻就从公众视野中消逝不见了。如果不采取有效措施来唤醒公众的注意力,那么,学院在这些艺术领域所取得的进展就会湮没无闻”。[27]表面上看来,在这里,学院把接受教会与君主直接订购产品的传统的定向消费方式,与一种在市场上出售产品的新型消费方式,把官方场所(教堂和宫殿)与私人空间(收藏室)简单地对立起来,似乎隐含着对后者的谴责;[28]与用在前者上的语词(如“雄伟壮丽”)相比,后者的那种间接、非定向和匿名的特征,似乎天生带有某种不正当的、偷偷摸摸的性质。似乎正是这些特征导致学院担忧它的产品“从公众视野中”的流失。然而这个问题牵涉到非常复杂的语境,需要我们作谨慎的梳理。我们注意到,在沙龙最早举办的那些岁月前后,巴黎正在形成一种新型的艺术交易方式:由艺术家和公众在一个类似于今天的跳蚤市场的场所进行自由交易。这个地方位于新桥附近西岱岛上太子广场(place Dauphine)的一个三角形地带,每逢圣体瞻礼节时,这里会自发形成一个自由市场。围绕着一个为节日专门搭建的祭坛,艺术家们在民居墙上布置挂毯并悬挂画作,既用作节日的装饰又兼为自己做广告。起初,主要是一些弗兰德斯画家在这里练摊,他们经常假冒知名艺术家的名义向公众兜售赝品;另外则是一群尚未获得院士头衔的年轻艺术家,诸如朗格尔(Langret)或夏尔丹(Chardin)等人,他们未进沙龙之前靠在这里摸爬滚打而捞取了人生的第一桶金。后来,甚至那些功成名就的学院院士,如勒莫瓦(Lemoyne)、里高(Rigaut)和古瓦贝尔父子(les Coypel)等人,也禁不起诱惑到这里赚取外快。[29]这就是1704年“导览手册”中那段话背后的时代背景——显然,在这个市场上交易售出的作品,确如“手册”所说,因为进入了“私人收藏室”,从而“从公众视野中消逝不见了”,但需要补充的是,它们首先是从学院的视野中消逝不见了。因而,让学院不悦的与其说是自由市场的新型交易方式本身,毋宁是这种交易离开了学院的控制;与其说是学院想禁止它,毋宁是更想取代它,因为前者的交易直接影响了学院自己的交易。长期以来,学院一直不允许自己成员参与自由市场,但这一政策甚至连自己的高级成员(如贵为院长的古瓦贝尔)都无法约束——他们与那些以跳蚤市场为生的江湖画家一样,都受到同一种市场交易方式的影响。事实上,在1699-1704年的沙龙展经办过程中,正是学院遭遇到重大经济危机的时刻。根据学院的备忘录,[30]甚至那些沙龙展的主办者都担负着为展览寻找买主的使命;而展览为“唤醒公众的注意力”所采取的一系列“有效措施”,除了为展览改换门庭、出版“导览手册”之外,还包括尽量延长展览的展期(从开始的几天一直延长到将近一个月)——一切都是为了尽可能多地吸引公众前来观看,从而增加展品售出的机会。在1699年展览中,寻求出售的产品还增加了戈伯兰王家挂毯厂出产的挂毯。它们被当作背景而与画家的绘画重叠在一起,令人想起太子广场江湖画家的习惯做法,更强化了展品作为商品的性质。而这些售出的展品,鉴于它们作为架上绘画的性质,几乎毫无例外地经沙龙之手,最终流向所谓的“私人收藏室”(cabinets)和个别的消费者。从这种意义上说,沙龙与它最初的反对者(自由市场)恰好是殊途同归的:它们都指向同一个匿名的对象——公众。问题:究竟谁是公众?              公众问题177年,艺术批评家德·迈罗贝尔(Pidansat de Mairobert)这样描述了他在同年的沙龙展上亲身体验到的“公众”:“你要穿越一道犹如陷阱一般的楼梯才能重见天日,虽然那楼梯本身相当宽敞,但总是拥挤不堪。一番恼人的拼搏之后犹自惊魂未定,你又会发现自己重新陷入到一个躁热难耐、尘埃飞扬的漩涡之中。乌烟瘴气,臭气熏人,弥漫着众多来自通常都不太健康的阶层者特有的气息,这种气氛最终酝酿出的不是雷霆就是瘟疫。你会被一种犹如惊涛拍岸持续不断的嘈杂声搞得头昏脑胀。不过,对一位英格兰人来说,这种不分高低贵贱、男女老幼咸集的场面倒有几分可看之处。这个地方大概是法兰西唯一的一处公共场所,可以令人想起伦敦所特有的那种宝贵的自由气氛,这种意味无穷的场面给予我的快乐远远超过了在这个艺术殿堂里陈列的那些绘画杰作”。[31]图6 德·圣奥宾 《1753年沙龙的过道》 腐蚀版画上述引文中,我们获得的第一个信息是:这是一个“不分高低贵贱、男女老少咸集”的场所(图6)——这无疑是王家美术学院组织沙龙展的初衷所在。我们从1699年学院配合沙龙展出版的“导览手册”中可以清楚地读到,组织展览的目的在于“获取公众的反响”——这里,“公众”似乎意味着所有人。其次,当德·迈罗贝尔把这个嘈杂、热闹的场面描述成“法兰西唯一的一处公共场所”,令他想起了“伦敦所特有的那种宝贵的自由气氛”时,我们应该知道,这个判断更多是由作者行文时的特点决定的,因为作者是假托于一个“英格兰人”的名义撰写这些文字的,出自他的地下出版物《英格兰间谍》(Espion Anglais)。然而客观地说,德·迈罗贝尔笔下的场面,无疑更令人想起巴黎很久以前就存在过的一个“公共场所”——太子广场上的艺术品跳蚤市场。同样的公众,同样的展览方式;同样的“自由”,同样的“嘈杂”;同样的魅力与危险并存。因而,德·迈罗贝尔的描述只有按以下的角度来读解才是正确的:沙龙大展以把太子广场搬入卢浮宫的方式彻底取代了自由市场。事实上也正是如此。自从1737年以来,沙龙以每年定期举行的方式制度化之后,它已成为法兰西艺术对公众展示的唯一重要的舞台,同时伴随着其它一切展览形式的衰微和边缘化。但是另一方面,沙龙在取代自由市场的同时,也使自己在一定程度上自由市场化了。也就是说,沙龙改变了以往艺术家与艺术赞助人之间直接进行的交易方式,而代之以商品与消费者在市场中进行的供求关系。因而,来自于公众的反应就变成艺术品价值的一个决定性条件。然而,当艺术家与赞助人之间面对面的交易方式被取消后,艺术家所针对的“公众”的面孔就变得模糊了——正如托马斯·克罗所说,“公众”似乎“无所不在,但又不是任何一个具体者”;[32]德·迈罗贝尔的描述——“这种气氛最终酝酿出的不是雷霆就是瘟疫”,同样也表达了“公众”的磨棱两可性。那么,这个“公众”究竟是谁?他们似乎既可以是传统的君主、贵族;也可以是种种新出现的身份,如批评家、记者、艺术爱好者、收藏家和资产阶级;同样包括社会下层的平民大众和老弱妇孺。事实上,作为评论家而置身于公众之中享受到“意味无穷”的德·迈罗贝尔本人,正如他以“英国间谍”自况的写作方式所透露的,何尝不也是属于这个“匿名”的群体!理论上,每一个人都是“公众”;但现实中,“公众”又不限于每一个人。正是“公众”的这种集群体与个人于一身的性质,促使托马斯·克罗把它表述为“是通过某个人或针对某个人的能指整体的表现”(a representation of the significant totality by and for someone)。[33]总之,“公众”在18世纪法国沙龙的出现标志着一个重要的社会与文化的转型,伴随着其他领域出现的一系列引人注目的变革:例如,在绘画样式上,是可以自由转移的“架上绘画”作为“爱好者”和“收藏室”的艺术的兴起,从而区别于与建筑融为一体的、追求纪念碑效应和装饰性的官方艺术;在艺术趣味上,是古典主义的法则向罗可可的感性的转向;在消费方式上,则是从直接订购向市场采购的转变;最后是在体制上面,表现为美术学院、沙龙、博物馆、报纸、批评家等中介机构或功能的决定性出现。具体在文化体制方面,沙龙面向公众的展览方式(相当于博物馆举办的“临时展览”)则为博物馆相应的“公众政策”做好了充分的准备。然而,仍然存在着一个问题:鉴于“公众”融群体与个体于一体的模棱两可性,正在逐渐兴起中的博物馆的“公众政策”,究竟会向它的哪一个方向——“普遍性”抑或“特殊性”——定位呢?我们发现,19世纪的博物馆决定性地选择了向前者发展的道路,而它的典型例证就是卢浮宫。 作者| 李军(中央美术学院人文学院教授、博士生导师)注:[1]J.Hankins: “The Myth of the Platonic Academy of Florence.” Renaissance Quarterly 44, no.3: 429-75;转引自Carl Goldstein: Teaching art. Academies and schools from Vasari to Albers, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p14。 [2]参见佩夫斯纳著、陈平译:《美术学院的历史》,湖南科学技术出版社,2003年,第12页。[3]佛罗伦萨设计学院的成立始末如下:1560年,雕塑家Montorsoli回到佛罗伦萨,得到了位于圣母圣灵感胎教堂(Santissimo Annunziata)的一个小礼拜堂,意欲用于自己和其他艺术家死后葬敛之地。这一计划很快得到了Vasari、Bronzino、Sangallo和Ammanati等艺术家的响应。起先,他们想的是恢复一个被废弃很久的艺术家行会——圣路加行会,后来,在瓦萨里的倡议下,艺术家召开了一个大会,想以佛罗伦萨文学院为榜样,在行会的基础上成立一个新的“学院”(Academy)。该倡议很快得到了科西莫公爵的批准。1563年1月,佛罗伦萨设计学院正式成立,科西莫公爵和米开朗琪罗被选举为“首脑”(名誉院长)。参见Carl Goldstein: Teaching art. Academies and schools from Vasari to Albers, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp16-19。[4]参见佩夫斯纳著、陈平译:《美术学院的历史》,湖南科学技术出版社,2003年,第47-49页。[5]关于佛罗伦萨设计学院的展览和陈列情况,参见Gérard-George Lemaire: Histoire du Salon de peinture, Klincksieck, 2004, pp.18-19。[6]关于佛罗伦萨设计学院是否是第一所现代意义上的美术学院的讨论,主要参见这一领域的唯一两部专著:佩夫斯纳著、陈平译:《美术学院的历史》,湖南科学技术出版社,2003年,第27-64页;以及Carl Goldstein: Teaching art. Academies and schools from Vasari to Albers, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp1-29。[7]1564年12月24日颁布的学院新章程的第一条,法文原文为:“A l’exemple de l’Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture, dite de Saint Luc florissante et célèbre à Rome”,此处,陈平译本错译为“遵照绘画和雕塑学院的榜样,著名的圣路加在罗马说”,参见佩夫斯纳著、陈平译:《美术学院的历史》,湖南科学技术出版社,2003年,第82页。[8]Carl Goldstein: Teaching art. Academies and schools from Vasari to Albers, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.42。[9]Abraham Bosse: Sentimens sur la distinction des divers manières de peinture, desseins et gravure, et des originaux d’avec les copies, 1649, Paris。参见同上书,p.144。[10] “Nous devons faire en sorte d’avoir en France tout ce qu’il y a de plus beau en Italie”,参见F. Haskell-N. Penny: Pour l’amour de l’antique. La statuaire gréco-romaine et le goteuropéen, Hachette,1999, p. 49。[11]参见佩夫斯纳著、陈平译:《美术学院的历史》,湖南科学技术出版社,2003年,第91页,译文略有修改。[12]同上书,p. 56。[13]关于卢浮宫在路易十四时期的收藏概况,参见Jean-Marc Leri et Alfred Fierro: Le Louvre 1180-1989. Du palais des rois au musée national, Editions Tallandier, pp.30-36。[14] 佩夫斯纳用语。参见佩夫斯纳著、陈平译:《美术学院的历史》,湖南科学技术出版社,2003年,第91页。[15] 他们是大卫(1774年)、安格尔(1801年)和布格罗(1850年)。[16]1667年,学院已经拥有了67件院士入选作品。参见Gérard-George Lemaire: Histoire du Salon de peinture, Klincksieck, 2004, p.30。[17]同上书,p.30。[18]参见该书法译本F. Haskell-N. Penny: Pour l’amour de l’antique. La statuairegréco-romaine  et le got européen, Hachette,1999。[19]Carl Goldstein: Teaching art. Academies and schools from Vasari to Albers, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.150。[20]同上书,p.151。[21]Carl Goldstein: Teaching art. Academies and schools from Vasari to Albers, Cambridge   University Press, 1996, p.1。[22]Liste des tableaux et des ouvrages de sculpture exposés dans la grande galerie du Louvre  parMM. les peintres et sculpteurs de l’Académie royale en la présente année 1699, Paris, 1699,  p.ii, Deloynes no. 2。参见同上书,p.37。[23]参见《简明不列颠百科全书》,中国大百科全书出版社,1986年,第7卷,第58页。[24]相关论述参见Thomas E. Crow: Painters and public life in eighteen-century Paris, Yale University Press, 1985, p.1。 [25]同上书,p.1。[26]Liste des tableaux et des ouvrages de sculpture exposés dans la grande galerie du Louvre parMM. les peintres et sculpteurs de l’Académie royale en la présente année 1699, Paris, 1699, p.ii, Deloynes no. 2。参见同上书,p.37。[27]Liste des tableaux et des ouvrages de sculpture exposés dans la grande galerie du Louvre parMM. les peintres et sculpteurs de l’Académie royale en la présente année 1704, Paris, 1704, p.ii, Deloynes no. 24。参见同上书,p.37。中译文为引者对照法文原文重译。 [28]如Thomas E. Crow从中读出了,学院认为“私人市场的吸引力再次损坏了学院致力于公众事业的形象”,参见同上书,p.37。[29]巴黎17世纪艺术市场的情况,请参见Gérard-George Lemaire?: Histoire du Salon de peinture, Klincksieck, 2004;和Albert Dresdner: La genèse de la critique d’art, Ecole Nationale Supérieur des Beaux-Arts, 2005。尤其是后书,作为一部于1915年初版并几乎被遗忘的著作,此书开启了西方艺术史界对于“公众”问题研究的先河。作者的很多观点都影响了如Thomas E. Crow这样的当代艺术史家。但Thomas E. Crow在他的名著Painters and public life in eighteen-century Paris中,只是在参考书目中列出了Dresdner的此书,在正文中只字未提。这是令人遗憾的。[30]Albert Dresdner: La genèse de la critique d’art, Ecole Nationale Supérieur des Beaux-Arts, 2005,p.157。[31]Pidansat de Mairobert: Lettres sur l’Académie royale et sur le Salon de 1777, paru tout d’abord dans L’Espion Anglais, et réédité dans la Revue Universelle des Arts, vol.19, pp.185-186。另参见Albert Dresdner: La genèse de la critique d’art, Ecole Nationale Supérieur des Beaux-Arts, 2005,pp.134-135;Thomas E. Crow: Painters and public life in eighteen-century Paris, Yale University Press, 1985, p.4。此处译文为引者据法文原文译出。[32]Thomas E. Crow 语。参见氏著: Painters and public life in eighteen-century Paris, Yale University Press, 1985, p.5。[33]Thomas E. Crow : Painters and public life in eighteen-century Paris, Yale University Press, 1985, p.5。(本文获教育部2008年度“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”资助,编号NCET—08—0859。“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”是教育部设立的专项人才支持计划,支持高等学校优秀青年学术带头人开展教学改革,围绕国家重大科技和工程问题、哲学社会科学问题和国际科学与技术前沿进行创新研究。着眼培养、支持一批学术基础扎实,具有创新能力和发展潜力的优秀青年学术带头人。“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”每年评审一次,目前中央美术学院共有10位优秀青年学术带头人入选这一计划。) ...More

20世纪上半叶中国美术现代性的两种叙事——以“先驱之路:留法艺术家与中国现代美术(1911-1949)”展为例...

2019-06-04 97 people interested

内容提要:本文是“先驱之路:留法艺术家与中国现代美术(1911-1949)”展策展理念的深化,旨在研究在20世纪上半叶中国美术转型的历史节点上,那些选择了将中国美术由传统走向现代的发展之路的留法艺术家们。无论是倾向于西方学院派古典主义、写实主义、现实主义的“科学”的现代性诉求之路探索的先驱们,还是那些接近西方现代主义诸流派的“民主”的现代性诉求之路的前行者们,都殊途同归,共同促进了20世纪上半叶中国美术现代性的发展,并推动了20世纪中国美术基本面貌的形成与演变。关键词:留法艺术家;现代性;20世纪中国美术留学(包括游学)是19世纪末20世纪上半叶兴起的中国历史,尤其是文化史中最富时代特征的现象之一。中国近代的留学运动始于19世纪末,先是主要留学日本,20世纪初的1906年左右清政府开始官派少数青年留学欧美。此后,从清末至新中国成立之前,期间自费、公派出国的留学生人数众多,他们在政治、经济、军事、思想、文化、美术等各领域研习精进,归国后贡献了巨大力量,做出杰出贡献,成为众多领域的先驱者和奠基人。具体到美术领域,留学欧洲热潮以法国巴黎为核心展开,王如玖和吴法鼎[1]都是在1911年转学法国巴黎高等美校专习美术,开启了留法艺术家的先驱之路[2]。尽管随后也有李超士[3]、方君璧[4]等少数青年自费赴法学习美术,但是,直到1915年蔡元培在法国与吴稚晖、李石曾、吴玉章等创办了“留法勤工俭学会”,以实际行动、组织保证和多次撰文倡导青年留学欧美。自此, 自费、半工半读、公费留学法国专门学习美术的青年才突增起来,林风眠即属第一批勤工俭学留法艺术生中的一员。而1919年北洋政府第一次专门划拨一个公费留法名额给美术专业,获得这个名额的就是徐悲鸿。 换句话说,徐悲鸿是中国第一位公费留法艺术生——尽管,这个公费名额是蔡元培为他直接争取来的。可以说,徐悲鸿是带着自己和时代赋予他的历史使命——“为人生而艺术“赴法留学的。徐悲鸿认为中国画学之颓败皆因为文人画所致,改良的办法,需要“实写”,要“按现世已发明之术,规模真景物”,达到“惟妙惟肖”,以此改良中国画,挽救颓败的中国画,[5]以期寻找一条将中国美术由传统向现代转型的出路。徐悲鸿提出的“实写”,即是随后陈独秀发表在1919年1月15日《新青年》第6卷第1号《美术革命(复吕澂信)》(吕澂的信发表在1918年12月15日的《新青年》上)中 的“写实主义”,这恐怕是针对美术界第一次提出以西方写实主义改良中国画。[6]同年10月,稍早于陈独秀,蔡元培在刚成立不久的“北大画法研究会”第二次开班授课的演讲上也强调:“此后对于习画,余有两种希望:即多做实物的写生,及持之以恒二者是也。中国画与西洋画,其入手方法不同。中国画始自临摹,外国画始自写实……今吾辈学画,当用研究科学之方法贯注之……用科学方法以入美术。”[7]徐悲鸿此时正被蔡元培邀请在“北大画法研究会”担任水彩画导师,并且,为了掌握他在文中提到的“现世已发明之术”,也就是蔡元培提到的“科学方法”,他远渡重洋,在巴黎高等美校接触、选择和认真学习了8年并终生坚持了学院派写实主义风格、手法及艺术主张。[8]1927年9月回国后,他一方面积极创作大型油画历史画,响应蔡元培以“科学方法”创作中国自己的大型历史画的美育主张;一方面投身美术教育,先后在全国各地公、私美术学校教授青年学生,推行写实主义教育教学主张,同时效仿蔡元培当年对他的举荐,多次向国民政府推举多位青年才俊赴法、英、美研习美术;另一方面,他还以强大的个人魅力和有效的社会活动力,将大批志同道合的新派名家团聚在自己周围,形成了目前学界所言的“徐悲鸿体系”。说到体系,不免使人想到新文化运动中倡导的“民主”与“科学”思想。徐悲鸿掌握和奉行的学院派写实主义艺术主张,可以看作是新文化运动“民主”与“科学”思想中“科学”信念与态度在美术界的回应。1915年兴起的新文化运动中,陈独秀提出了“国人而欲脱蒙昧时代,……当以科学与人权并重”。[9]并将“民主”(人权)与“科学”形象地比喻为“德先生”和“赛先生”,[10]并且强调“只有这两位先生,……才可以救治中国政治上道德上学术上思想上一切的黑暗”。[11]由此,以陈独秀为代表的一批社会精英,不但完成了将辛亥革命以来自发的“民主”“科学”观念上升到自觉的层面,尤其将其上升到关系国家兴亡的历史高度,这非常契合当时兴起的普遍的民族觉醒意识。具体来讲,提倡“民主”是为了反抗专制君权,为了启蒙国人做自己的主人,不做身体和精神上的奴隶,实现个体的解放与精神的自由;提倡“科学”是为了反抗旧道德旧伦理,反对封建盲从,提倡实证主义经验哲学,也就是陈独秀说的“实利”,重点在倡导理性。 “民主”与“科学”信念在20世纪上半叶成为时代变革的号角,成为中国从传统社会出走后的历史选择,也就是我们现在所说的成为20世纪上半叶中国的现代性表征。徐悲鸿在时代洪流面前,选择了“科学救国”的艺术探索之路,不过,他并非如他自己所言“独持偏见,一意孤行”,而是有大批的志同道合者。倾向于学院派写实主义的美术家除了他之外,还有李金发、李风白、吕斯百、吴作人、王临乙、刘开渠、萧淑芳、韩乐然、谢投八、秦宣夫、唐一禾、吕霞光、胡善馀、曾竹韶、王子云、滑田友、张充仁、李瑞年、廖新学、黄觉寺,以及在徐悲鸿之前就已经开始进行实践的吴法鼎,及倾向于学院派新古典主义的王如玖、郭应麟、常书鸿等。这一批留法艺术家以严谨理性“科学”的学院派写实造型体系,不但进行着油画语言的探索,而且体验着不同于中国传统文化对于世界的把握和表达的新的视觉经验,那就是相对精确、客观地再现客观现实,而不是如文人画那样只写“胸中逸气”。这一批美术家的艺术实践可以说一定程度上实现了康有为、蔡元培、徐悲鸿、陈独秀早在20世纪第一个十年中倡导的以西方的写实主义改良中国传统书画的愿景。在以西方科学的比例、体积、透视、空间、光影、色调、质感、细节刻画等一系列系统的写实性造型语言进行中国画改良实践的画家中,也以徐悲鸿为代表,包括他的“彩墨画”“夜景画”概念的提出与实践,包括他在中国人物画振兴、传统山水画向风景画的转变、传统花鸟画、动物画的写实造型语言探索方面,都为20世纪上半叶中国传统美术向现代的转型提供了各种可能性和可行性探索。相比之下,与徐悲鸿同学于巴黎高等美校的林风眠,[12]同样带着自己和时代赋予他的历史使命——“为艺术而艺术”赴法留学。只是,他没有完全醉心于学院派写实主义的“科学”艺术之路,而是更倾心于“民主”精神——他迷恋上了学院之外的西方现代主义诸流派,在林风眠看来,这些画派能够充分传达人类的情感,这正是他醉心于艺术的核心所在。[13]林风眠一生追求“艺术是人类情感的表现”,这不仅离不开他第戎的恩师杨西斯(Yancesse)的谆谆教诲,[14]也与他的德籍第一任夫人罗拉不无关系,与他一生秉承蔡元培“兼容并包、学术自由”的治学及教育理念密不可分,也可以说是他自己的个性使然。根据现存文献中的黑白图片,约略可见林风眠在1924-1927年间创作的几幅巨幅油画作品《摸索》《人类的历史》《人道》《民间》等,题材和主题充满悲怆的历史感、深沉的悲剧意识、殷切的现实关怀,其造型和笔触激烈、有力、狂放,作品中野兽派的色彩,[15]立体派的形式构成,以及德国表现主义的象征性和表现性,加之林风眠独特磅礴的气势和真挚充沛的感染力,这些都深深感动了蔡元培,他对林风眠极为赞赏。要知道,恐怕只有在林风眠身上,蔡元培才看到了他的“美育代宗教说”完美的实践者和实现者。蔡元培急急地让还在求学阶段年仅25岁的林风眠回国,接任国立北平艺专校长,之后更是接二连三委以重任。林风眠也在之后的杭州艺专任校长期间,秉承蔡元培“兼容并包、学术自由”的治学及教育理念,网罗和培养了众多艺术人才,使杭州成为传播和实践西方现代主义诸画派的重镇。倾向于抽象艺术的吴大羽、赵无极,追求形式美感的吴冠中,追求巴黎画派意味的雷圭元、对油画语言的纯粹性精益求精的胡善馀、董希文[16]等,皆是留法艺术家中与林风眠和杭州艺专关系密切的油画家。诚如前文所述,蔡元培在“北大画法研究会”第二次开班授课的演讲上,强调用西方写实的科学方法进行美术创作这一理想,以徐悲鸿为代表的一批学院派新古典主义、写实主义艺术家得以实现;而蔡元培更认为“现今最流行的表现派,尤与中国式相接近”。[17]蔡元培这里所说的表现派,主要指后印象派、野兽派、巴黎画派、德国表现主义。而与蔡元培此观点高度一致的,除了林风眠,还有刘海粟。刘海粟自1912年参与创办中国第一个私立美术学校以来,通过美术教育、艺术创作、社会活动等,在上海产生持久而巨大的影响。某种程度上可以说,上海在整个20-30时代,都属于刘海粟的时代。确切地说,属于刘海粟倡导的印象派、后印象派、野兽派、立体派等西方现代主义诸画派风靡上海的时代。刘海粟此时只短暂考察过日本现代艺术,还没有去过法国,但是他广泛接触美术期刊,从而接触到当时法国巴黎最流行也最前卫的画派——印象派、后印象派、野兽派、立体派等。而蔡元培对刘海粟艺术风格的理解极为中肯和深刻,他在1922年称赞并指出“刘君的艺术,是倾向于后期印象主义,他专喜描写外光;他的艺术,纯是直观自然而来,”而且“很深刻地把个性表现出来。”且“他的个性是十分强烈。”“总是主观地抒展自己的情感。”[18]之后倪贻德也持此观点。1929年2月刘海粟得蔡元培赏识,为其争取到以教育部考察员之名赴欧洲各国考察游历。这就使得他的欧洲之行在身份上完全不同于其他留法艺术家,他不是作为学生,而是作为功成名就的大师级“访问学者”赴欧进行艺术交流。刘海粟在1929-1931年间创作的大量油画风景画,具有明显的印象派、后印象派、野兽派画风,其中多件作品还专门选取他心仪的现代主义诸画派画家的视角进行现场写生。[19]  旅欧回国后刘海粟致力于编写《西画苑》,系统介绍西方现代主义诸画派,尤其对后印象派、野兽派极为推崇。此书尤其擅长将西方现代主义诸画派与中国古代传统书画做对比联系,这一点也是蔡元培一贯喜用的方式。整个30年代,刘海粟在上海的影响更加广泛,追随者众,这更加速了当时在法国学院派之外流行的现代主义诸画派在上海的发展和接受度。热衷于立体主义的庞薰琹及“决澜社”对形式语言的探索、衷情于巴黎画派的张弦、进行印象派探索的潘玉良、唐蕴玉,色粉画大家李超士、热衷于点彩派的周碧初,他们在留法前后都与刘海粟及上海有紧密联系。 概而论之,20世纪上半叶众多的留法艺术家们,既接受了“科学”的西方学院派古典主义、写实主义、现实主义美术,也带回了“民主”的西方现代主义诸流派,他们共同为20世纪初期中国美术带来了传统书画体系之外的油画(西画、西洋画)、雕塑、素描、色粉、水彩等新的美术类别和新的美术观念,甚至与之相关的新的生活方式,从而成为活跃在中国20世纪上半叶的重要群体之一,奠基、开拓、改变、丰富了20世纪上半叶中国美术的发展。正如前文所述,在20世纪上半叶中国美术转型的历史节点上,留法艺术家们选择了将中国美术由传统走向现代的发展之路,从而成为20世纪中国美术现代性文化诉求的先驱者和践行者,成为中国美术从传统向现代转型的奠基者、开拓者。无论是那些倾向于西方学院派古典主义、写实主义、现实主义的“科学”的现代性诉求之路探索的先驱们,还是那些接近西方现代主义诸流派的“民主”的现代性诉求之路的前行者们,都殊途同归,共同促进了20世纪上半叶中国美术现代性的发展,并推动了20世纪中国美术基本面貌的形成与演变。作者|红梅(“留法大展”策展人、中央美院副教授、硕士生导师、中央美院美术馆理论出版部主任)原文发表于《美术研究》2019年02期 注:[1]王如玖于1906年被清政府北洋速成武备学堂第一批官派赴法学习陆军,但在1911年,他放弃军事学习,转学到巴黎高等美校和布尔德尔雕塑工作室,学习油画和雕塑。吴法鼎于1911年公派赴法留学研习法律,同年转学巴黎高等美校学习油画。[2]这就是为什么本次展览题目“先驱之路:留法艺术家与中国现代美术(1911-1949)”(以下简称留法大展)中标示的时间是从1911年,而不是惯常采用的民国元年,即1912年的主要原因。当然,从历史学的角度看,作为“辛亥革命”的1911年也非常重要,尤其是“辛亥革命”激发起的“民主”、“科学”思想,与本展览和本文关系密切。令笔者感到欣慰的是,在这次留法大展的专题研究中,历史学和艺术史断代完美重合。[3]李超士于1912年入法国巴黎瑟尔曼图画学校,后转入巴黎高等美校。[4]方君璧于1912年入法国波尔多省立美校,1919年考入巴黎高等美校,与徐悲鸿同考同入学。[5]徐悲鸿于1918年5月14日在北大画法研究会演讲《中国画改良之方法》,之后,《北京大学日刊》的“画法研究会纪事十九”,于 5月23、24、25日三天连载徐悲鸿的演讲词,并增加了附录。[6]陈独秀在文章开篇即说:“若想把中国画改良,首先要革王画的命。因为要改良中国画,断不能不采用洋画的写实精神。”并在文末提出“……若不打倒着(这里指王画),实是输入写实主义,改良中国画的最大障碍”。[7]引自:赵力,余丁主编:《中国油画文献》,湖南美术出版社,2002年,第413页。[8]本次留法大展中徐悲鸿的《杨仲子全家福》、《箫声》等作品即是典型。[9]引自《陈独秀著作选编》第一卷,上海人民出版社,2009年,第162页。[10]德先生:民主的英文Democracy音译的简称;赛先生:科学的英文Science音译的简称。[11]《陈独秀著作选编》第二卷,第10页。[12]林风眠1918年年底随留法的勤工俭学团来到巴黎。1920年2月入法国第戎国立美校,1920年9月转学巴黎高等美校,与徐悲鸿同学于柯罗蒙工作室。[13]林风眠信奉托尔斯泰“艺术是人的情感的表现”说,也信奉蔡元培“美育代宗教”说,这构成了他的基本艺术观。这一点在他1927发表的《致全国艺术界书》的长文中有详细阐述。[14]1920年,林风眠进入法国第戎国立美术学院学习油画,得到第戎美术学院院长杨西斯(Yancesse)的赏识,并经常告诫他不要只学习学院派,尤其不要成为学院派的一员。[15]色彩运用、色调处理方面,可以从此次“留法大展”中展出的约作于1926年的《思》,又名《哀思》中领略。此作品画的是林风眠的第一任夫人,德国少女罗拉。1924年他们在德国相识,很快进入热恋并结婚。然而罗拉不幸于1925年死于产褥热,林风眠一度非常悲痛。此作品应该是林风眠在罗拉去世后不久根据记忆创作而成。画中罗拉紧闭双眼,寓意美人已逝。这幅作品的黑白图版被陈抱一收录在1929年再版的《人体之美》一书中,是难得一见的林风眠早期油画。此作品典型地富有野兽派的色彩,立体派的形式构成,以及德国表现主义的象征性和表现性。[16]1939年董希文从北平艺专和杭州艺专两校合并的国立艺专毕业,经学校推荐,作为留法预备班学生到越南河内巴黎国立高等美术学院分院学习,受到法国教师指导,并看到不少西欧画册及原作,同时接触到色彩浓郁的越南漆画艺术。因战事爆发,国内官费停止,被迫提前回国。这一段在越南河内巴黎美专分院的学习,使董希文直接接触到法国学院派古典主义绘画技法及审美经验的训练,构成他日后独特油画语言及个人风格形成的重要因素。1946年6月,董希文结束长达10年的漂泊生活,回到故乡杭州父母身边。董希文运用从越南河内巴黎美专分院学习到的学院派古典主义绘画技法,为父母画了这两幅肖像画,以此表达对年迈父母的敬意和长期分离的思念之情。由于董希文不是在地理意义上的法国接受到法国学院派古典主义教育,遂成为此次“留法展”中唯一一位没有踏上法国国土的“留法”分院艺术家。将董希文纳入此次“留法展”,希望引起学术界的深度讨论,从不同视角探讨留法艺术家的文化影响。[17]蔡元培:《巴黎万国美术工艺博览会中国会场陈列品目录序》,引自金雅主编:《中国现代美学名家文丛:蔡元培卷》,浙江大学出版社,2009年。[18]引自:赵力,余丁主编《中国油画文献》,湖南美术出版社,2002年,第448-449页。[19]如此次展览中的《秋葵》是向凡高致敬,《威斯敏斯达落日》是向莫奈致敬,《罗丹的模特》是向马蒂斯致敬。主要参考书目:李泽厚著:《中国思想史编》,安徽文艺出版社,1999年汪辉著:《现代中国思想的兴起》,三联书店,2008年史全生主编:《中华民国文化史》,吉林文史出版社,1990年李铸晋、万青力著:《中国现代绘画史》,浙江大学出版社,2012年赵力、余丁主编:《中国油画文献》,湖南美术出版社,2002年王震编著:《徐悲鸿年谱长编》,上海画报出版社,2006年 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