讲座纪实 | 盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯:沼泽与新想象

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时间:2018年10月11日晚上

地点:中央美术学院美术馆报告厅

主持人:中央美术学院实验艺术学院副院长  王郁洋

嘉宾:麻省理工学院(MIT)建筑系艺术、文化与技术研究生部副教授  盖迪米纳斯· 乌尔博纳斯(Gediminas Urbonas)

 

王郁洋:各位观众和同学们晚上好,我们今天很荣幸邀请到了盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯先生,他是麻省理工学院建筑系艺术文化与科技研究部的副教授,同时他也是艺术家、教育家。盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯教授在生态诗学上的研究项目历时5年,探索在全球生态失衡背景下动物行为学与非人类生命的认知学以及诗学之间潜在联系。他的这项研究于2018年在麻省理工学院的研讨会上结束,接着又开启了一个研究共生的新项目。此外盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯教授刚刚在第16届威尼斯建筑双年展呈现了沼泽学院和沼泽学院未来的学习环境项目。

本次讲座围绕他的沼泽研究和创作、生态诗学以及共生概念展开讨论,现在请我们以热烈的掌声欢迎盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯先生上台做精彩的演讲。

 

盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳:谢谢王教授的介绍,今天很荣幸来到中央美术学院做讲座,我想感谢张尕老师、也要感谢罗爽女士和所有大师班的参与者以及今天来参加讲座的各位。我是一名艺术家,我和我的合作者博锐斯一起工作,2017年我们被邀请策划威尼斯建筑双年展立陶宛馆。

我和搭档的艺术实践都是在麻省理工学院建筑部门完成的,在过去的10年间我们研究关于当代的城市化进程,包括城市化最新发展、公众参与和媒介对于城市空间的介入等。我们在合作中都很希望把我们建立的合作式网络拓展到其他学科,让所有的参与者一起共享。因此我们开启了名为“沼泽馆”的研究项目。

大家都知道沼泽和建筑的关系其实是非常有争议的。在人类史上有很多建筑项目其实是在沼泽上发生的。整个人类的居住历史,都是以让沼泽干涸为代价发生的——把沼泽的边际进行理性化的过程,让它们变成农耕用地。整个人类居住的进程原本基于沼泽之上,但是在演化过程中人们抽干了沼泽,拓展了边界,其实也是利用了保护他们的环境。

最近10年间由于海平面上升,对比如美国的新奥尔良州、休斯敦、纽约以及全球范围内的一些沿海城市造成了影响。我们面临的问题是要保护自己不受海平面上升的侵扰,还是去适应这样的环境。

如果我们去适应这个环境——由海平面上升带来新的生态环境的话,就意味着我们将由人类变成两栖的状态。这意味着我们不仅需要在海平面上升语境框架下重新思考建筑,也需要重新思考整个生态环境,思考不再以人类为中心的生态环境,思考新材料的制作,我们如何生活以及如何适应空间。

所谓的两栖化是一个学习过程,所以我们建立了“沼泽学院”。

这个沼泽学院会帮助我们理解作为人类,我们怎么去适应新的纪元,并且去恢复那些随着现代性的发展被我们所抛弃的事物。当今是一个不仅有技术危机,而且包括经济、文化、政治三重危机的时代,亟需我们提出一个关于传统的国家边界的问题。

众所周知,在威尼斯双年展的语境里,参展人群某种意义上代表各自国家——不管是艺术家、建筑师还是设计师,都在思考参展作品怎样代表自己的国家。

我们的团队开始反思威尼斯双年展所围绕的国家这样一个核心概念,我们从威尼斯双年展来看每年的国家馆所在地,反思加里波第所代表的地缘政治形象。

如果大家不是特别熟悉威尼斯双年展加里波第地区结构的话,可以看一下这张地图,这是20世纪40年代的威尼斯双年展加里波第地区的地图。里面有英国、法国、西班牙、比利时、荷兰、俄罗斯、德国还有作为主场馆的意大利。这个构成到今天为止没有太大的改变,因为许多被这些国家所殖民的地区没有资格参展,无法以场馆的方式在这里面呈现。

思考威尼斯双年展框架里面如何代表一个国家,其实是一个两面性问题。第一个代表去殖民化;第二个是我们提出了沼泽这样一个地缘没有严格划归或者限定的概念,来对冲威尼斯双年展所提出的国家代表性。

因此我们提出了一个有点像寄生式的结构,它悬挂在加里波第地区的边缘。我们也提出了未来学习环境的概念,它由几个元素构成,每个元素都关注于人类的感知器或者感官体验。比如有声音的、热力的、渗透或者过滤的过程,有点像处理传输和过滤的关系。对稳定性概念提出得质疑,同时我们也希望让人的身体变成对自身感知逻辑的一个反思。

开始的时候我需要为沼泽学院项目建设一个话语平台,包括引入适当的合作者,所以我们策划讲座的项目去划定语言边界。整个沼泽学院的制作团队来自不同国家和机构的合作者,他们可能来自艺术院校、艺术家运营的空间实验室和其他的运营机构。

我们的参加者不仅来自MIT建筑学院,还有立陶宛自由大学人文和建筑方向的学生、威尼斯和米兰的学生,来自法兰克福建筑学院的学生和汉堡大学艺术设计方向的学生,来自比利时皇家艺术学校的参与者,来自于冰岛大学的人类学家和生物学家,以及来自安特卫普大学的生物学家。我们的导师团队来自智利、巴西、泰国、中国和其他国家的成员,由于预算等现实的原因我们的构成没有太多走出欧洲的范畴。

我们跟所有参与者一起发展沼泽学院的架构,包括三个主要的章节和结构组成,它和沼泽学院出版物的结构是一样的。第一个是沼泽广播,回应关于聆听和传输的概念,可被聆听和可被传输的环境。第二个是未来岛,它回应的是共生环境,它是一个共创系统或者集成系统,是来自控制论的一个概念——Communism可能会和共产主义混淆,它更应该被翻译成平民主义,它强调的是人在环境中的共同生存。

沼泽这个概念有点儿滞空于大气、水和土地之间的,它处在不稳定的有阀限的状态下。沼泽中有非常多样化的生物形式,虽然人类一直以各种方式介入沼泽,但它依然欣欣向荣,抵御着来自周遭文化和系统侵略式的暴力。沼泽也给了我们这样一个机会去检验我们刚才说到的集合生成系统,让我们标记诗意的和政治的状态。

因为某种原因,威尼斯建筑双年展期间,威尼斯政府没有给我们实际授权,以完成搭建这个作品,但是我们依然重新配置了这件作品,并且部分的把它呈现了出来。

沼泽学院基于威尼斯市中心的物理环境和它的组织架构。我们的灵感之一来自于一位控制论研究者,他提出了一个控制之脑的概念,我们把它称之为生态生物控制脑。这个英国的控制论学家的工作领域是关于工业生产过程中不同的自我均衡的复杂模型。有点像思想实验的概念,他设计了一个控制工厂,这个控制工厂可以适应未知并且随时变化外部系统。

设计这样一种控制工厂必须具备的一个条件,是要有一个可适应的“大脑”,这个大脑需要比传统人文领域、数学理性或者人类认知的标准化模型具备更多的灵活性或者弹力。

比尔对这个可适应大脑的研究也指向了一个新的研究方向——自我平衡的有机体,比如裸藻类生物体。把沼泽视为完善自我平衡的生态系统,并且这个生态系统有能力去呼应任何不可预测的外部环境。

比尔有点控制论的想象或者梦想,所有人造系统需要跟活着的生物系统或者生物物质进行有机整合。在这个语境中沼泽被提出来,因为沼泽很像一个集合体,会成为整体模态驱动力的源泉。

第一代控制论的研究者大都是基于数学模型进行工作的,之后比尔包括其他生物学家把控制论推到了下一个方向——由生物启发的控制系统。

马蒂里斯(音)发展的这套共生系统模式,在这个语境之下去“使用”同时意味着“被使用”,不得不合作,或者是被迫合作,使用或者被使用,只有在相互侵蚀的过程中改变,才会发生这样一个系统结构,可以理解为一系列隐喻的延伸。这个隐喻关系到我们今天怎么看艺术、科学和技术之间的关系。

对于这个概念我们不想太抽象,所以接下来通过实际案例验证我们刚才提到的思考沼泽这个出发点。

这个作品是用到了平菇,平菇作为真菌有迅速繁殖的特性,它可以从一些生态农业、工业废弃物里获取养料达到繁殖。我们的实验室利用它的特性,以它为基础创造了新的材料,这个新材料某种意义上取代了塑料或者其他人工制品。

通过尝试不同材料的创作,我们也探讨艺术的物质责任性所在,与此同时创造新的想象空间和未来可能性,包括我们所摄入的和使用的材料可能共属于同一个循环系统。

这个作品指的是生态诗学,我们对于新材料实验的结果是开放的,不指向特定的范式。我们在沼泽馆里提出了这样一个开放系统——没有给定目标环境,不拷问实验室如何去提供条件支撑这样的实验。我们跟MIT认知科学领域的科学家合作来讨论沼泽智能的框架。

相对于人工智能这类的词藻,我们也提出了沼泽是否具备智能?这个模式提到了两个对立的端点:左边这个叫生成器,学习如何从现实的图像中生成图像。右边是鉴别器,功能是鉴定哪些是真实的图像,哪些是生成的图像。关于持续的在真实和想象之间的动态平衡,这个系统模拟了发生在沼泽生态环境中的一切。

我们有人工智能神经网络建筑师,有上百万张图片通过计算机的想象开始生成原图像。

因为这是一个持续的项目,所以现在不会给大家看它生成以后的图像,但我可以给大家看这个神经网络正在形成的图像素材。当讨论到混合时间课题时,我们思考建筑艺术和媒体事件如何结合,很难界定这些对象到底是媒体艺术家、建筑师、设计师还是媒体制作人。我们把这类实践统称为泄露实践——没有办法被框限在一个具体的边界之内。这些渗透或者泄露实践离开了原本归属学科的范畴,选择寄生在其他的学科领域之内,并且不断地渗透,甚至把它在其他的领域中汲取的知识和灵感带回到原本的领域进行混合。

比如20世纪60-70年代在MIT留学的研究员大卫·霍文,他研究的课题叫不可见的建筑,他在亚马逊雨林中进行了大量田野调查,用一个非常早期的录像设备大量记录了发生在人类和非人物种共建的系统中发生的感情的、语汇的、宗教的等等一系列非物质交换。

不可见建筑没办法被一张单纯的图像或者渲染概括,不得不依靠绘画、影像、叙事这几种媒介元素之间的共振被阐释。

比如说Robert Smithson提出了地点性和非地点性概念,他和南希共同制作了一个名为《沼泽》的电影,他提到了在沼泽中身体的运动形态。在这个影片中Robert Smithson用他的身影倒影在松软的有点神秘而让人不适的沼泽地中行走,行走的过程中环境的声音、导演者或者剧本的朗读声以及沼泽本身的影像被混在了一起。

同时我们也研究了在六七十年代早期探讨人和环境关系的影像作品。除此之外,我们还探讨了其他虚构与叙事形态的作品,比如流行文化、日本漫画的一些内容。还有叫做《地海站记》的作品,作品中描述了一个生活在奇异环境中生物的形象,其实这也构建了一种我们想象中,投射到未来的一些形象。

除了刚才提到的一些在影像等虚构创作中的经验以外,参与者也提供了基于真实环境的真实实践,比如有参与者在哥伦比亚北部小镇记录了当地沼泽化的进程。其实沼泽本身对于很多人来说很怪怖的形象,在很多叙事里它代表可怕怪异,是不为人类而设的一种环境。比如日本导演新腾坚仁拍摄的《鬼婆》,里面提到的沼泽是对于超人力量的暗示。

沼泽这个课题的研究提出了人和非人或者人和超人的纠缠。除了沼泽这个概念在超能力或者超能量想象上的延伸,同时也有女性色彩和政治力量的暗喻。

在阿兰摩尔作品里面的沼泽体是一个最小元素的生物,它会使用来自植物、星球的自然力去对抗被污染世界自毁的过程。

追溯美国近代史,我们会发现逃亡的黑人在斯摩尔大沼泽逃亡的故事。这些逃亡的黑奴在斯莫尔大沼泽找到了居所,和当地印第安人建立了很好的关系,并且获得了自由。这个故事里的沼泽可能跟刚才提到的那些形象相反,不是肮脏的,而是象征了自由与光明。

同时沼泽也有植物寄存其中,比如眼角草(音),是在沼泽中常见的植物。与此同时我们也会联想到人类环境的系统化,追溯到六七十年代控制论的思潮中有一系列基于控制论叙述的投射,我们想象人机共生的环境里如何对人类进行改造。

包括刚才提到的在这样一个想象语境中我们如何把人类和植物进行结合或者共生。

回到物理的世界我们有必要去看这样一张实体的图片。PEAT这个词本身意指泥潭藻,是在人类自己的讨论中很重要的概念,相当于像燃料一样支撑了沼泽的生成。那么,它跟立陶宛的沼泽之间的关系是什么?在上世纪90年代末期德国科学家韦伯在立陶宛进行了一次旅行,当时立陶宛还在德国的控制之下。当时魏玛共和国让他去立陶宛西部的港口对沼泽进行调查。整个调查的核心就是沼泽,他们想知道沼泽有多大程度对人类是有用的。

这是人类有史可究的第一次关于沼泽的出版研究,它出版在1972年,被称为“沼泽圣经”。其实沼泽不是一个均质的平的东西,而是有层级的。这部著作详尽描述了构造成泥潭藻不同层级的构成。尤其是在发生沼泽不同的层级和元素之间的化学反应,最终形成沼泽植物生态不同的外观。

为什么沼泽的地貌和植被会呈现出不同的形态?韦伯的研究结论是沼泽并不是一团废弃的泥土,而是内部环境非常错综复杂的生态系统。发生在沼泽的底层土壤和大气之间有种种互动关系,最终决定了成长在沼泽之上的植被的形态。他有一些手稿,在手稿中他想象了在沼泽之中的生活。

沼泽土的一个很重要的特性是无氧环境,对人类尸体、有机物的保存是一个绝佳的环境。所以说沼泽不仅仅是一个复杂的生态系统,也是一个文献库,它保存了人类上千年的历史。

作为回应刚才提到的沼泽挑战以及它带来不同想象的向度,包括沼泽作为未来的系统,我们制作了一个类似于沼泽指引的出版物,里面涵盖了人类学、社会学、哲学和艺术不同实践的角度,用来联想沼泽作为一个概念如何投射到我们对于未来的想象中。

我们在视觉设计上也回应了沼泽的分层结构,给不同类型的活动赋予了不同的颜色。我们组织的关于沼泽挑战的活动不仅仅讨论了一些抽象议题,也非常具体和实际地把落脚点放在了威尼斯,毕竟威尼斯本身就是生活在泥沼之上的城市。

比如在这个名为“参与式重要”的项目里,我们和一些来自汉堡的学生共同工作,在这位教授的领导下针对于慕尼黑无家可归者组织了一个活动。同时我们也组织了一个电影放映项目,把沼泽变成了一个公开场所,让整个威尼斯的公民都可以参加。在一个工作坊里我们邀请了生物学家,让参与者亲自实验关于生物发光体或者自发光的材料工作坊。

沼泽学院发生的空间本身也以艺术作品形态存在。传统的操作方法是把空间当做一个画廊,把艺术品放到里面,而我们选择把整个空间变成一件艺术作品。这个空间跟真的沼泽一样,它没有固定结构,无时无刻不在发生着变化。我们用两种重要元素构成这件作品,其中一种塑料铜管,就是我们常常使沼泽干涸,抽干沼泽的管道。我们把这些管道从土壤中拔出来,把它们化身成一些文化元素,由这些塑料管道构成作品的基础结构,通过把人放置到并不舒适的、不传统的环境里面,来提醒我们对沼泽构成的实际影响。

另外一个主要的元素是覆盖在这些管道上面的泡沫板,泡沫板是一个漂浮物,它暗喻的是如果洪水降临我们该如何生存。根据这两个主要元素的组合或者替换,形成一个游乐场的状态。

这个空间同时也会举办一系列活动,比如新书发布会、MIT探讨建筑和设计讲座等。在这个建筑理论的讲座里面有提到20世纪六七十年代美国所谓的现代主义者所进行的一系列实验,这些活动的宗旨更像可充气的、游牧的、暂时的、有点自由主义的乌托邦式实验。也包括回应现存资本主义系统的方式,我们想象中的乌托邦,以及除了资本主义框架外有没有其他的路可以走。

这个建筑理论家偏向未来主义的观点,人类未来可能会偏向昆虫一样存在——昆虫的触角帮助它们感受环境并且与环境进行沟通。为什么人类正在逐渐变成昆虫?是因为我们对通讯技术大量的使用和依赖,除非你不使用有“天线”的手机,否则你可能真的会变成昆虫。其实这个“天线”的隐喻,你允许外部世界知道你的信息,包括你是谁,你身在何方,所有配备通讯技术元件的人,会持续通过这些元件感知外部,同时也经历着被外部世界感知和审查、监控的历程。

感受层面的讨论将我们引向了沼泽电台课题,它的核心是关于信息的传递和聆听。对这个课题的讨论离不开一系列人体感受器的激发,比如说消化、摄入、味蕾的工作。我们运用了一些有机的原料,比如沼泽茶,沼泽茶的原料是有毒性的,它会对人类的中枢神经系统有一定的影响,即使适量的摄入,也会一定程度激发人的神经系统,回应式的去消耗它。

我们另一个重要的研究方向是生物电或者在沼泽系统中自然生成电能。在这个实验里采纳了来自不同沼泽的样本,有欧洲、美国、瓦尔登湖、意大利、拉脱维亚等国家,这些沼泽的土壤涵盖着可以释放出电子的一些生物材料。工作原理就是泥潭藻的电信号从生物材料里面被激发出来,通过桌上的电线控制到电脑或者远程的图像,图像来自于沼泽里面的生物地貌。

这个实验有两个向度,一个是沼泽本身作为一个能量源泉,另外一个是沼泽作为电力的回路——有点像人脑的结构。我们试图在沼泽岸边建造一系列的装置,但是最后还没有建出来,它的名字叫做“声学的虚空”。它的工作原理是每一个筒构成声音的虚空,它有一套感应器系统埋在泥沼之中,泥沼之中的信号被传递和放大,人置身于其中可以感知他听觉之外的元素和它们的改变。

这在图像上看不出来,事实上体验者,他们可以体验到他们身体感官不能直接感觉到的一些关于沼泽生物毒性的数据。另外我们探讨人和沼泽关系项目引入了一个嗅觉式或者气味式的实验。来自MIT非常著名的气味研究者托勒斯提出了一个关于气味和污染的论断,我们今天重新思考气味这个课题的时候,需要从什么是好闻的什么是不好闻的传统讨论,转移到什么是气味的自由的讨论上。

跟刚才项目一样,气味的项目有它自己的工作坊,工作坊里面不仅提取气味的分子,还更多了解到气味在不同植物物种之间构建出的关系。这个名为“两栖人家”的项目是为儿童设计的工作坊——通常双年展是为成人设计的展览,很少有小孩可以体验的项目。在“两栖人家”里面我们提出了一个类似空间创生娱乐场的概念,和我们合作的建筑师团队提出的核心理念——居住不仅仅是人类需要思考的问题,人类也需要考虑到为其他物种提供环境的讨论中。

关于未来的学习环境,我们通过征集邀请了年轻一代建筑师参与进来,我们核心理念不仅仅希望关乎到参与项目的人,而是一个共同价值或者共同心理。

我们需要探讨的一个问题是情境和想象如何能够在展览的物理空间里得到实现,我们甚至想象整个威尼斯都可以成为我们的游乐场。

其实建筑师们也使用了类似于防水袋的东西作为具体实践的场所,他们把之前所有研究中的手稿和图像都印在防水袋上,让它们在威尼斯自由的游走。这也回到了我们一开始提到的泄露和渗透的概念,威尼斯双年展并不是有固化边缘的地方,而是可以自由游走的。

我们把一块真的沼泽移到了现场,这块沼泽来自于韦伯在立陶宛,也就是人类最早关于沼泽科学研究的那块沼泽,他们跟生物学家和一个泥潭藻运输公司合作把它们运了过来。通过这个行动,他们想探讨在一个自洽生态环境沼泽中的植物移到这样的场馆,在这样一个人工环境中,它们会发生什么样的变迁。

随着跟生物学家的合作,我们不断发现新的植物的诞生。为了维护沼泽我们需要建立一定的基础设施,比如光、渗水系统等等。因为威尼斯水源的盐度是过高的,所以需要一定的过滤。

我们说的实验室中的沼泽和观念化沼泽之间也是需要一定技术环境去支撑的,比如广播,MIT一个研究者对于沼泽学院项目提供了实体考察的试验,他自己做了一个海盗电台。

这些威尼斯的图像你可能不太会经常见到,但是刚才也说到威尼斯本身就是建立在泥沼之上,威尼斯商人在建造这座城市的时候所面对真实的挑战,是如何在不可能之地建造一座城市,所以这个城市需要不停地去自证它的存在,不停地和它周边存在的真实沼泽环境发生关联。

在沼泽学院里、沼泽电台项目的研究员在沼泽里面进行数次行走,通过对周边元素的捕捉,展示了威尼斯的双重面向。威尼斯作为一个城市和威尼斯作为一块沼地。这个电台的叙事内容由两部分完成,一个是生活在广袤沼泽地的非人物种,一个是把自己浸没在沼泽地里的人类。在这个项目里,尽可能囊括人感知系统的多重纬度,比如脚踏在沼地上感受到非稳定的触感,包括一日之内光照环境的变化、声速传递的变化等。

在这个过程中一方面需要依靠设备,另一方面依靠人类或者艺术家的智能。身处沼泽之中并且配备了一定前提条件的我们,对沼泽环境进行微调,聆听到那些并不可听的声音。

我们一方面需要想象力和艺术智能,另外一方面也需要技术辅助。同时这个项目也把我们引向了那些不被通用概念代表的岛屿和地域。这些地方有点像贮存了威尼斯长年积累的垃圾和污垢的地方,比如这张图片里呈现的是由威尼斯垃圾所堆成的垃圾岛。刚才提到的垃圾或者废弃物的概念也引向了威尼斯肥皂或者纪念品的项目,大家知道威尼斯是一个旅游城市,很多来此的人希望带走一些东西。当有朝一日威尼斯整个沉没的时候,这个世界仅存的关于威尼斯的东西可能是被旅游者带走的纪念品。

我们建构了一个关于威尼斯的肥皂工作坊,16世纪以来威尼斯的肥皂一直很有名,但是这些肥皂的原材料是从威尼斯建筑双年展国家馆的废弃物中提取的,也就是垃圾,旅游的传统威尼斯的肥皂制作过程,在威尼斯双年展框架中得到了回应。

回到现实的语境里,我们也考虑到了威尼斯那些无家可归之人的视角。这个被称为威尼斯无家可归者联盟或者协会,我们的介入,不仅尝试着理解他们的生存处境,看他们如何在原本无人居住之地居住并且重构他们的居所。那些来自沼泽的材料被作为可持续的建筑材料而使用,被用来重构那些人丧失的家园。

在这样一个对话平台上,我们邀请了艺术家、建筑师一起探讨双年展策展人或者参展人的责任,他们通过国家馆的建设给岛屿引进新的物理材料,但是又把它们弃之不顾。对于现行的威尼斯双年展系统,弃之不顾对这个岛屿本身造成了破坏。平台或者机构对此提出的建议和回应是,威尼斯双年展组织者应该承担这个责任,他们使用建造国家馆的技术、作品等材料,也应该有能力被这个平台的工作人员挪用,并且为威尼斯所有,真正应用到他们的生活和实践里面。

在讲座的最后,我想引用亨利卢梭的一段话:“对于我来说,希望和未来不在于草坪和耕地,不在于城镇和乡镇,而是在那个不可渗透,永远轻轻震颤的沼泽之中”。可能大家也比较了解美国政治的修辞让沼泽干涸,我们需要提出的是我们永远不要让沼泽干涸。

 

提问一:沼泽项目以后除了威尼斯双年展语境以外,之后有什么发展方向?

盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯:这个问题有两个方面,第一个方面沼泽学院这个项目在理念上是可持续的,包括它和威尼斯具体的地缘环境之间所发生的可持续的纠缠,关于这个问题可以从两个方面回答:第一个,泥潭藻本身是非常重要的建筑或者园艺材料,事实上展览期间威尼斯当地的园丁和工人已经排队,等待展览结束以后,把展览现场的泥潭藻拿去用于他们的日常生活;第二,用在展览现场中的那个塑胶管,因为威尼斯存在抵制或者抵抗奢华游船的社群——因为游船以非常慢的速度在海洋里行走,自身的循环系统会带来岛屿边界线的腐蚀和退化,对沿海物种造成损伤,威尼斯存在大量的游船执照,岛屿会随着沿海海平面浮沉。这个社群希望把这些塑料管用于建构临时的抵抗所,或者以其他方式参与到他们的项目里。其中的存在状态也赋予了塑胶管新的关于不服从、抵抗的概念和属性。

关于沼泽学院离开了威尼斯双年展语境之后是否有延续可能性的问题,我们制作了名为沼泽导览或者沼泽手册这样的出版物。它其实从未真正完成,大家看到扉页里面基于现实沼泽结构分层,可以不停地被添加。比如这次在北京媒体艺术大师班的课程中发生的项目,他们的参与成为沼泽学院北京版本,从这个角度讲,它其实超越了威尼斯建筑双年展本身的语境范畴。沼泽学院和威尼斯本身的联系就在于:威尼斯自带辩证关系——一方面它是垃圾拥趸的场所,另一方面又是游客如织的岛屿,是一个建立在不可能之上的城市,它同时具备游客心中旅游天堂的美好一面,和建构于沼泽之上的阴暗恐怖的一面,本身内生辩证关系的威尼斯成为沼泽学院这个项目最理想的不二选择。

 

提问二:刚才演讲中您展示了利用大量图片训练神经网络,您希望它训练到什么结果?我们什么时候见到这个结果?

盖迪米纳斯·乌尔博纳斯:事实上对于算法的训练在展览开幕之前已经有结果了,我们去年秋天开始,已经进行了一年时间,计算机生成的图像出版物的第一部分里面有涉及。借此让我有机会给大家讲一下这个出版物的结构。在这个出版物里,每一部分都有一张自己的海报——不管是项目空间,还是表演或者田野调查。沼泽智能有自己的单元,这个单元包括一篇解释沼泽智能项目的论文,以及那些计算机生成的图像。刚才展示的页面上的图像非常小,是因为计算机生成结果就非常小,而且不能被放大。放大成为海报的样子时,你发现它的分辨度非常低,不可能在大的屏幕上呈现。我们当时已经预想过计算机算出来的这样一个结果,那么我们以什么的方式展示它们呢?最终的处理方法是选择了一个大概是宝丽来尺寸一半大小的打印机。

我个人感兴趣的地方在于,计算机生成的图像,有多少个图像是有意义的,我讨论人和非人之间,物种和物种之间,非人与非人之间,乃至于机器之间的交流,这些东西如何在一个算法里面超越了人类理解的范畴。因为算法有能力想象人类不可想象之事,如果我们真的希望达到这个非人范畴,我们是否可以介入到非人想象力,大家看到,最终生成的图像有点像对于非人世界怪怖的能指。

 

提问三:在混生的艺术里面,艺术家尤其艺术创作的价值是什么?

盖迪米纳斯· 乌尔博纳斯:我不是很确定我的这个答案完全呼应这个问题。当我们采取这样一个混生态度去应对沼泽学院这个项目的时候,我们发现它不是一个威尼斯中心的项目,也不是一个闭合的不能为外界接触的项目,我们试图拓展学校的概念。在沼泽学院真正以展览和项目形式在威尼斯开幕之前,已经在立陶宛、MIT、米兰进行了一系列工作坊和大师课,我们在中央美院也进行了这样大师课。贯穿其中的总体原则是,我们希望沼泽作为比喻层面的沼泽是可以泄露的,从有固定边界的威尼斯场馆里面逐层泄露出来,进而到其他的地方。

参与者在学院里面所产出的项目,比如说第一张海报是米兰的学生探讨关于沼泽教育学的课题;第二个项目研究了所谓蚂蚁的声音频率,如何对土壤产生影响,声音作为跨物种的沟通方式,这都是“两栖逻辑”或者“沼泽逻辑”。在不同的地点、不同的空间里很多的项目是超越沼泽学院本体而发挥作用的。我们的实践有时候以指南的形式存在,我们对教育的思考不仅仅是老师教学生,教育是一种相互作用。我之前有一个MIT的学生是威尼斯本地人,带来本土性的知识,语境里面教和学的关系不停被重新检验,受到不同的地缘政治环境,学科背景的实时更新和挑战。


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CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Event Booking Form

Name:
Gender
Phone:
Valid Certificate: Identity Card
ID Number:
Email:

Reminder:

Hello! Thank you for participating in our public education event and we are looking forward to seeing you! If you cannot attend the event on time, please send a text message to 13261936837 (Liang) to cancel the booking. Please be aware that your eligibility for using the quick booking may be affected If you cancel the booking more than three times. Thank you for your understanding!
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