讲座纪实|有关乏味的机器和热情的人类:控制论、艺术与建筑之简史

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时间:2018年10月25日(晚)

地点:中央美术学院美术馆报告厅

嘉宾:玛琪·霍森 卡厄尔斯鲁尔艺术与媒体中心(ZKM)收藏、文献与研究部主任、研究员和策展人


主持人:各位同学、各位来宾,晚上好。今天很荣幸请到玛琪·霍森女士来到中央美术学院给我们做讲座。这个讲座基于艺术与技术中心“大师班”的项目。这个项目一年两次,春季和秋季每次邀请四个不同领域的专家,有艺术家、评论家、美术馆馆长等。

这次的主讲嘉宾玛琪·霍森女士自1999年起在卡厄尔斯鲁尔艺术与媒体中心(ZKM)担任研究员和策展人,2016年被任命为卡厄尔斯鲁尔艺术与媒体中心(ZKM)的收藏文献与研究部主任。她同时也是一位专攻媒体艺术史的学者,著有大量探讨二十世纪和二十一世纪艺术与政治、以及电子艺术历史的书籍。

今天她的讲座围绕机器与人类的关系,从控制论与艺术和建筑历史的角度出发,通过反思通讯机器系统和人类的关系和20世纪科学与艺术建筑领域的早期发展,来揭示今天普遍流行的“机器对话”这一概念,在历史脉络中存在的其他可能性。我们以热烈的掌声欢迎玛琪·霍森女士上台给我们做精彩的讲座。

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玛琪·霍森:晚上好,今天我很荣幸来分享一些内容,非常感谢中央美术学院的邀请。“没有人可以逃离机器,但是机器可以使你逃离命运。”1968年秋天,在美国纽约现代美术馆的展览上,策展人PORIS在“机器时代”展览的前言中写下了这句话。这个大型展览有点像一个正在隐去的、旧的技术纪元的挽歌。这个旧的纪元有点像我们所说的物理机械,或者物理机器时代,这种早期技术有一部分是对人的肌肉的模拟,这种机器正在把权利让渡给新的电子机器。电子机器在它的语言里面被描述为对人类大脑神经系统的模拟,也就是所谓的控制论机器。

当时的时代背景是,第二次世界大战加速了技术的发展,进而产生了新一代技术。PORIS的观察对公众来说并不是全新的现象,1948年前后数学家诺伯特·维纳在他很著名的《控制论:或关于在动物和机器中控制和通讯的科学》的书里提到:我们已经进入到由斯普机制所主导的时代,包括各种各样的自动机,它拥有这种类似于人类或者动物感官的配置,并且它跟外部的关联通过一种“印象的洪流”,来建立输入和输出信息的循环机制。

在维纳的控制论视角里,机器具备“视觉”和“听觉”,可以主动测量和观察环境变化,也可以根据环境细微的变化产生反应。

1965年法国哲学家安博鲍斯提到这样一种隐秘的革新,这是在战后工业国家普遍发生的情况。他写到:我们现在处在一个与机器共存的状态,机器已经侵入到我们所生存的世界了,或者更精确地说侵入到了我们的思想世界。在过去的70年间,我们已经习惯了跟各式各样的机器共生一个世界。

我更多观察到的是我们跟机器之间到底发生什么样的共通。我希望讲座内容可以连接到20世纪50年代和60年代所生成的“控制论理论”和“控制论机器”的一些内容。简单来说,控制论早期的理论家探讨关于机器的能力,他们在想象机器塑造环境时所带来的改变,这些改变可能波及我们的工作场所乃至城市;同时他们也在探索控制是否可以产生新的艺术形态。

今天讲座最有意思的、在历史上处理这个主题的人物是英国的心理学家,同时也是控制论理论家——GoedonPask。20世纪50年代初期,他就开始重新定义人和机器之间的关系,他通过控制的视角,发展自适应的环境理论,在这里面机械和人类系统可以互相影响并且互相进化。

Goedon Pask于1928年在英国德比郡出生,67岁去世,一生大约写了270篇文章、出版了六本书,做了无数场的研讨会和讲座,同时制作了大量基于人控制机器的观点。他30岁左右的照片中很难找到不带黑领结的,这个有点阴郁的人在30岁已经被认为是整个英国最有名的控制论学者之一。他是教学概念上的先驱,同时也很有国际知名度,他进行一系列不同知识领域的学习,包括地理、矿产、化学、生物学、药学和心理学。同时,他也花很长时间去写剧本,尤其是音乐剧。

从另一方面说,这些剧场和舞蹈空间其实已经变成了他早期的实验室,他在实验室进行的大量工作,都是在探讨一个问题:维纳提出的传播机器或者控制它的模型,如何对现实世界进行革新。Pask提到我们和人造环境之间的关系何以革新,也是来自维纳此前的论述,维纳认为人类自身构成了密不可分的关系,环绕人类的物理对象(机器)所构成的世界,它们与人类的关联并不紧密,二者保持着一种冰冷的隔阂。而Pask认为维纳的观点是不对的,他观察到我们生活在一个机器忽略人类,而人类服从机器的时代,他希望改变这种状态。

1953年Pask跟他的一个研发者同僚,研发出一台在现在看来有关键意义的机器,这个机器可以自主地去改变它自己的行为,这个机器的名字叫双色。它本质上是由光构成的一个机器原件,可以回应周边的环境,比如说弹钢琴的时候这个机器会发生反应。它其实是一个大型的光照系统,这个系统基于“电子大脑”的一套核心组件完成。这套核心组件可以使它通过麦克风录制周边环境的声音,通过放大并分析它们的频率,把它们转换为光的变化。这个机器最早的版本是1953年在它的剑桥工作房里做出来的,之后巡回到了俱乐部和舞厅等场所,巡回一直持续到1957年。那么这个机器有什么特点?它其实是一个反复无常而且有情绪的机器。一旦外界用重复的节奏,或者重复的频率演奏乐器,机器就会拒绝合作并把灯关掉。机器这样不友好的行为其实挺让人震惊的,比如说我们作为当代的观察者,我们经常看到音乐家在演奏乐器时呈现的状态有点像是被催眠的。因为他必须要高度专注于去发明一些变调。这个机器演奏者当时体验到了一种时间感的丧失,因为他们要花大量精力去发明新的音乐,避免机器关掉,作为机器他通过放大演奏者的在变调上的努力,某种意义上讲,它成为人类想象力的放大器。

Goedon Pask对机器与使用者状态的描述也很有意思,他将其描述成一个对话。这个对话描述我们和机器的关系,在接下来很多研究中都占据主导地位。他用对话理论去涵盖了人和人,人和机器,机器和机器之间的关系。他也认为如果我们能够给机器赋予一定程度的不确定性,反而能给人带来更多愉悦。因为人并不能完整地去预测机器接下来要做什么。他相信如果人类可以准确预知接下来会发生什么,他们会觉得无聊,换句话说这种无聊的状态是不愉悦的开端。Pask认为人类需要系统,这个系统需要学习,人类很享受学习的系统。他也认为人类有这样的倾向性,不停在周边环境中找到新鲜事物,并且去学习怎么控制这些不可知外部环境的具体情况,这也产生了不确定性。怎么做呢?就是作为人类最经常的方式,我们会去创造简化抽象的模型去理解世界,这些抽象方法也帮助我们与环境相处,并且做出决定。在他的观念里我们发展出世界的抽象模型,本身就是让人愉悦的体验。

最开始Pask是怎么想到把人类视作学习系统的概念的?事实上在他自己的研究路径里,他花了大量精力去思考,所谓学习的概念。包括他自己成名那么早,也因为他发明这种所谓的教学机器,这个东西被发明的初期很受军方青睐,这些机器被训练为人类服务的时候,他也会学习人类的行为,并对自己的行为进行调整。他发明的学习机器最有名的是 “半自动键盘指导者”。简单说它是系统教人迅速学会使用12键的打孔机,这是在早期电脑程序里面制表打孔的东西。这个机器会持续地去问它的受训者一些问题,试图找到过度索取以及让受试者感到无聊之间的平衡。他不仅感兴趣于训练人类,更感兴趣的是科学知识在当时的社会环境下,发生在人和机器之间的“日常交换”关系。这在当时可以理解为我们劳动的义务减少,因为很多有控制的机器已经代替人类劳动。据他观察,可能造成的结果就是人被夹在中间,要么处在过度劳累状态,要么处在没有成就感的状态。这两个结果同样都会降低生产效率,或者降低人的幸福感、成就感。这就到了一个临界点,操作机器人开始大量犯错,因为他们已经把技术并生在内在化的状态。当对技术的依赖内化为人的一部分,人就开始犯错。他也举例当时有很多打字员一边打字一边“神游”。他认为解决这个问题的方法,就是发明出可与人沟通的机器,可以持续学习。他的想法类似于在人和人所控制的机器之间加入一个角色,这个角色是控制设备。当这个控制设备观察到人类开始进入白日梦或者神游状态时,它会在人和机器的进程之间加入一些小任务,让人不得不去完成这个任务,从而使注意重新集中,他希望这样一个机制的发明可以提高效率,降低人们的疲劳,也让工作这件事情变得更有趣。

这些关于机器的东西,跟艺术到底有什么关系?事实上因为刚才提到的很多东西都已经转移到艺术和建筑领域,艺术家怎么去回应新一代的通讯机器的技术进步,如果我们回到21世纪50年代的,一个经典案例是艺术家Nicolas Schoeffer。1956年尼古拉斯发明了一个控制论雕塑,他在巴黎一个剧院里面进行了表演。这个可以交流的机器,具备“听觉”和“视觉”,可以对环境中的一些改变做出反映。它会整体进行运动,上面每个碟片也会对应进行运动。这个作品所谓电子脑的部分由飞利浦提供技术支持。但是作为一个艺术家的梦想,不仅仅是用这种控制的机器去占领剧院的舞台,他甚至幻想整个城市都充满这样一些可以移动的被控制的机器。这可能有一点点时代的语境在里面,他当时回应是说整个二战之后,城市是百废具兴的状态,疲惫的城市需要很低的成本和很高的效率被重建,他提出用雕塑充满城市,有点像是说把一些和谐的,美感的事物注入到百废具兴的状态里。他对于控制论艺术的野心投射在他创造的一系列有声塔上。这个塔的大脑会根据整个城市环境作出反映,比如塔上会装录音的设备,录音设备可以把外部的环境刺激和环境变化的数据,包括温度、湿度,风力、颜色光、声音等收集起来。这个电子脑有逻辑去控制刚才提到的12个声音磁盘,通过一些安装在塔上的扬声器,把声音扩散到空气里,换句话说,整个塔作用建筑或结构成为城市的一个有声有光的景观。

这是在比利时复制他在1961年之后做的塔,他创造这种大型的装置,想试图重新创造在艺术建筑和当代社会之间的平衡,包括把自然和艺术环境精妙地整合在一起。他有一个比较当代主义的普世社会观——可以让各种年龄不同背景的人都感到同等快乐。他是控制论艺术非常重要的人物,但是他的作品是没有学习能力的,观念上更像是机器物种,可以自主生存,独立于观者之外,有点像是投射在艺术作品上的“有生命的机器”的一种想象。

接下来的这件作品是Pask收到伦敦展览邀请的作品,可以被理解为是第一个展示计算机可以产生审美对象的展览。这个展览的策展人在展览中同时展示了艺术家和科学家的作品,展览的标题很难翻译,可以理解为“控制论的意外之喜”,包括了与观众交互的作品。《移动设备》可以说是最重要的一件。这个作品叫做移动设备,因为可以让原件根据声音和光线进行互动,它给设备之间的通讯设立目标,艺术家赋予社会系统一个模型。这件作品可以被理解为对社会的比喻,暗示来自不同背景的人的社交场景,可能在一次出席鸡尾酒盛宴时侃侃而谈,也可能是跟哲学家进行的一场私聊。在这个作品语境里面,场景是两个男性和三个女性之间的交流,这个沟通是有目的性的,他要满足男性的本能。你看到这个图像里的立方体是象征男性,圆形像贝壳的象征着女性。下面悬挂着一些光敏电阻。简单来说,男性机器会试图发出光,达到贝壳女性机器的镜子上面,象征女性机器用镜子试图把光线返回到男性机器上的感应器上。如果这个回路完成的话,男性机器会可以发出声音。整个系统其实有一定的学习能力,会优化自己的行为,不管在运动方式上还是合作方面,会以最小的能耗去实现这种满足感。展览的参观者可以将之理解为爱情游戏,他们用光源介入到游戏的对话中。这个机器作为系统,必须在最小能耗下让回路形成,即让男性和女性在这个系统里产生最大的欢愉,但是观众的参与事实上干扰了学习进程,从比喻层面来说,它使这里面的男性和女性重新形同末路,他们不停地初次相识,观众的介入干扰了机器达到它的满足。对Pask而言不仅感兴趣在机器的满足感,而是感兴趣人类的幸福感。他认为作品构成了审美有效的环境,什么叫审美有效的环境?在他的观点里,这个环境本身会主动去鼓励观者去探索和学习,找到精神呈现的层级结构。换句话说,这个环境会给人一种充足的清晰感,不停地邀请人进行讨论,让人的注意力处于高度集中的状态。你看一幅画的感受和机器环境给你造成的感受不一样。在Pask看来,这种控制论艺术所构建的环境,会迫使他的观察者去行动、去做决定、去把他的所观所想外化出来。他也帮助艺术家或者创作者更好地去了解观众的反映,但这并不是最重要的部分。其中受益最多的反而是观察者或者观众,他所构建的环境需要参加者去决定。

这个观点在他跟第二控制论的作者合著的论文中也提到了,“人必须要做决定,所以才成为人”。换句话说,如果观察者只是静静地站在原地,以一种沉思或者冥思的方式去看待一些作品的话,他未必有那么高的可能性去获得关于他自己的知识。反而是一个不得不在环境中跟作品互动的人,对他自身的主体性有清醒的认识。如果我们在今天的视角去看的话,这个观点有可能有问题的,我们每天不停地使用智能设备,我们通过不停地使用手机,增强了我们的主体性。但是对于控制论本身来说,不管通讯是在人和人之间,还是人和机器之间的发生,作品的和学习机器里面有一个东西是融会贯通的,Pask是希望人类处在高度集中的状态上,甚至一定程度上被环境和他和机器之间的对话交流所吸收进去。其实Pask也把人对于决策的需求贯穿到其他类型作品里面,比如他也是控制论剧场的提出者之一,他在1964年跟英国的剧场创作者一起合作了控制论剧场。在剧场默认的反馈模式中,演完大家要鼓掌,如果你不喜欢这个剧你就提前离开,这样的模式是不准确的,他希望用一种更精确的流程去取代它。他给每位观众一个小的控制器,这个控制器可以让每个观众去选择不同剧目的上演过程,选择幕间休息的时间。

所以综上所述,我感觉Pask是不相信沉浸式独处的。他认为人唯一感到快乐满足的方式就是持续和外部环境沟通。刚才我也给你们看他对控制论城市的想象,我现在也想给大家介绍一下Pask对控制论建筑的一些理念。建筑一直是他的近期所关注的,他本身对于建筑和建筑师之间的关系可以追溯到跟麻省理工学院建筑机器小组的创始人得亲密合作,他也曾在伦敦的建筑协会上课。

我现在给大家介绍的主要建筑项目叫做“欢愉宫殿”。是刚才提到控制论展览几年前实现的项目,与20世纪60年代左翼政治思想有着紧密联系。这个项目是由刚才提到的伦敦建筑师在1961年的时候设计的。“欢愉宫殿”的理念有点像当时的伦敦市民的理念,可以逃离教育系统,以及由大量机器带来对人的异化。其实在当时的时代语境下,娱乐或消遣已经成为公众关注的议题,被视为一个威胁,“欢愉宫殿”项目即是对这个威胁提出的回应,他把它当作快乐的实验室,或者是一个街道大学,希望每天有3500个到50000的人来到此地。这个建筑本身在伦敦,它有260米长、114米深、50米高。整个钢结构匹配矩形的桥、地板、阶梯,可以根据参观者的需求自由移动。这个所谓的“欢愉宫殿”内部分成很多区域,里面有可以艺术创作的区域、打游戏的区域、科学实验的区域。建筑里也配备实施影响传播的系统,可以把建筑内的人联系起来。也可以把整个外部世界跟建筑连接起来。这是在20世纪60年代比较流行的观点,我们通过电视屏幕去窥探别人的生活,增加我们共情的能力。

理论上可以在“欢愉宫殿”做任何事情,它有两个基本机制,一是会鼓励在学习中获得愉悦快感,二是拒绝被动消极的状态。Pask在这个项目的角色又是什么呢?其实Pask当时也是“控制委员会”的成员,他的工作是设计一个有自适应性的建筑,与周边的环境和里面的人发生对话。当然他在给这个建筑贯穿他之前提到的教学机器,但是最重要的是把建筑本身作为概念提出来。

换句话说整个建筑已经变成自适应的环境,不管他的墙面和地面还有天顶的模块怎么样,他都会在钢结构里根据发生的事情而自主调整。在这个建筑里,遍布大量电子感性器原件,有一系列计算机去控制整个建筑,建筑观测其中参观者的行为和他们的兴趣程度,并据此调整自身。对于Pask来说整个“欢愉宫殿”项目像社会目的的载体,这个表格一定程度上也像他当时的理念——人应该被他的经验所改变,不可“编辑”的人变成可“编辑”的人。其实很多当代的研究者看到这个图表会有点震惊,或者感到恐惧,关于编辑或是改写、改造的概念。为什么人要被改造,人应该怎么被改造,我们可以换一个角度看这个问题,将整个机制绘制成对话,不管是人类参观者,还是建筑本身,他们都在持续经历被改造的过程。建筑本身的可编辑程度,可改造程度的局限,或者说其实是把控制权移交给了观众。控制机器也有可能欢愉状态下,人变成机器,由人类改变人类,到底是什么意思?为什么人类被改造我们可以换一个角度看待这个问题。事实上存不存在这样的目的,去建议参观者应该怎样被改造?或者整个机制会被设计成像一个对话,不管人类参观者还是建筑本身,他们都在持续经历着被改造的过程。建筑本身的可编辑程度和可改造程度没有局限,“欢愉宫殿”是把控制权移交给了观众,也有可能项目本身在终极状态下变成机器,一定程度上重返人借助机器去控制其他人的状态。

虽然我刚才从不同维度重新检验了这个问题,这座建筑在历史上从来没有真正被建造出来,我们通过仅有的文本没办法给出更充分的答案,但是他提到控制系统的终极目标是去强化对幸福感的实现。听到这样的论证我是表示怀疑的。因为他暗含了一些人替其他人提出“何为幸福”。1969年Pask发表了一篇长文讲述建筑主题,也总结了建筑与控制论之间的关系,这个文章名字叫《控制论的建筑相关性》,我想重述他最重要的一个论述。其实在Pask的观念里,他把建筑模型比喻为自主系统,在控制论的概念下,环境可以把居住者内心的思维进程以外部的方式讲出来,建筑可以观察到人的兴趣点,对人的质询做简单的回应。这里面最关键的论述是,他认为,这样的建筑系统永远不会被具体化,这样一个非具体化的建筑理念,有点像文章里提到过的类似观点。如果一个设计师在最开始的时候,已经把每个原件和结构,每个步骤都具像描绘的话,这个作品将永远不会超出设计师大脑的可想象的范围。他相信Pask设计的建筑可以跟随居住者的想象自动地发生改变。在这个事件里,人类希望见到可以互相支撑,没有具体设计的建筑,可以跟人发生对话,随着人发生改变。在这样一个世界里,人类可以不停地互相交谈,互相倾听。有一个美国说过一句话,我之所以成为我,是因为我的狗认识我,在Pask设想的未来建筑,有点像“我之所以成为我,是因为我的房子知道我。”

我讲座最后把语境拉回到艺术世界展览空间的环境中,刚刚提到审美有效的环境概念并不是一个人。大家如果了解艺术科学史的话,会知道他是非常重要的角色,他的研究直接引向了今天的AR,也就是互联网的前身。他跟Pask有非常类似的观念,他也认为,当我们静静看一幅画时,是某种意义上的互动状态,但是他说这是非常弱的互动,对于他来说艺术家和观众之间的区别,就类似于生存和观察之间的区别。换句话说,他希望用一种称之为互动或真正交互的状态去取代通常所说的观察,这不仅仅对艺术至关重要,同时也对教育很重要,包括对维持我们所谓当代文明的清洁度也很重要,换句话说,他认为艺术应该处在自适应状态,他不强调艺术观众要有一定的智力或者心志的水平,而认为艺术应该存在自适应观者的状态。

他举例子一幅画作必须有能力在每一次审视它的时候都要发生一点点改变,所以这幅画在永恒、持续地维持着创作者的注意力和信心。简单来说作品会根据每个观看者去发生变化,产生出光线,声音可以振动,这个作品本身的计算内存不仅仅是会保持自己的运算程序,他也可以去记录一开始运行到此时此刻每一个跟他交互的人所有交互的历史,每一个交互环境所有外部数据会促使这个作品不断地调整自身,让他去根据这个相互去选择对方,根据交互者的倾向性根据他的理解能力,甚至根据他的物理信息的测度提出一个最基的回馈他的模式。

换句话说在刚才作品语境里面是有一个权利的出让,如果你想要定制化的体验,就是你想要这个机器,根据你的要求去提供体验的话,你必须出让你的数据所有权,当提到互动概念的时候,其实更强调互动而不是Pask所说到的对话或者交流的概念。为什么跟作品的互动让人愉悦,因为每个生存在世界上的人都希望能跟另外一个人讲话,就这么简单。当人们有了更多机器把人类从劳动中解放出来,人们有了更多时间,他们觉得很无聊,会花大量时间像死人一样躺在电视机前面。艺术家认为他看到一个拯救人类的方法,就是用互动交互的作品让人从广播电视系统催眠效应当中重新苏醒过来。也让我们回到演讲一开始的那句话,其实没有人能够逃离机器,只有机器能够赋予我们逃离自身命运的能力。

在最后我也想总结一下Pask的观念对今天的博物馆的意义。我的工作背景是德国的媒体中心,可以说它拥有了全欧洲数量最多的互动艺术作品,正是因为此,我也希望我们对技术的转变有更清晰的和不一样的认知。刚才在讲座里大家也知道有一个关于交互跟平静思索或者跟反馈式的不交互的观看之间状态的探讨,数字化并不是我们要放弃已经拥有的行为习惯,而更像是数字化提供给既有文化系统新的可能性,我们希望能够同时培养技术和文化的一些行为或者技能,这里面包括交互,包括我们重新静静站在一幅画前去审视它。同时我也想要为Pask想要抛弃的两种心态:白日梦和无聊辩护。我认为白日梦和无聊可能是我们心志濒危状态的榜首,但是我不认为应该放弃他们。谢谢。


提问一:你好,我想问一下,现在有很多艺术家在尝试制作一些新媒体艺术作品,也会和观众有一种互动,但是作品中很多的互动性设计让观众没有参与感,观众还会认为自己是观众,没有真正理解和进入作品,您觉得好的互动作品他需要具备怎样的特征呢?

玛琪·霍森:首先我认为,如果说这个交互机制只是涉及到基础的出发和反馈,而没有其他叙事包含在里面的话,是很容易让人疲劳的。


提问二:你在结尾谈到神游的状态,其实是值得被珍惜的,因为有些艺术家的状态可能和神游状态有类似之处。我想问一个伟大的艺术作品可以感染各式各样的人,这样的作品和各种各样人之间的沟通是很有效的,我想问受控制论灵感影响的作品和传统意义上理解的伟大作品感染各种各样人这个效果,这两者是怎样考虑?

玛琪·霍森:刚才在演讲的最后我们也提出,我对于白日梦状态和人的反思心态的维护,我不认为我们拥抱一个新的思维过程,或者是文化权利的时候,就全盘否定我们已拥有的一切。这两种感知过程并不能形成关于作品是否伟大的决定要素,因为一件作品是否伟大的标准不是跟感知过程绑定的,两种情境各自有它成立的意义。


提问三:谢谢,我一直很感兴趣未来艺术的互动的发展方向,将来会不会达到一个临界点,比如说自己生成作品,就是它还生成一个其他作品,可以繁衍下去的话,这可能带来一个悖论,最后会不会不存在人类的艺术家,而是由机器来带给你作品。

玛琪·霍森:其实你的问题可以有很长历史追溯,最早可能在1949年前后图灵自己就说到,如果机器可以做诗的话,那另外的机器就是它最好的读者。早期人们会有这样的幻想,不仅仅是艺术作品会超生出它的艺术,机器艺术作品会超生其他的艺术作品。换句话说,机器作为艺术给机器形成的反乌托邦似的闭合的系统。现在有很多年轻的艺术家在使用人工智能进行绘画或者其他类型的创作,某种意义上讲是把艺术家的控制递交给了机器或者程序,但是这些创作到目前为止还是为人类观众所设计的。

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Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

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Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

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CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Group Visit Agreement
and Statement

CAFA Art Museum Publication Authorization Agreement

I fully agree to CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) submitting to CAFA for publication the images, pictures, texts, writings, and event products (such as works created during participation in workshops) related to me from my participation in public events (including museum member events) organized by the CAFA Art Museum Public Education Department. CAFA can publish these materials by electronic, web, or other digital means, and I hereby agree to be included in the China Knowledge Resource Bank, the CAFA Database, the CAFA Art Museum Database, and related data, documentation, and filing institutions and platforms. Regarding their use in CAFA and dissemination on the internet, I agree to make use of these rights according to the stated Rules.

CAFA Art Museum Event Safety Disclaimer

Article I

This event was organized on the principles of fairness, impartiality, and voluntary participation and withdrawal. Participants undertake all risk and liability for themselves. All events have risks, and participants must be aware of the risks related to their chosen event.

Article II

Event participants must abide by the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, as well as moral and ethical norms. All participants must demonstrate good character, respect for others, friendship, and a willingness to help others.

Article III

Event participants should be adults (people 18 years or older with full civil legal capacity). Underage persons must be accompanied by an adult.

Article IV

Event participants undertake all liability for their personal safety during the event, and event participants are encouraged to purchase personal safety insurance. Should an accident occur during an event, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for the accident, but both have the obligation to provide assistance. Event participants should actively organize and implement rescue efforts, but do not undertake any legal or economic liability for the accident itself. The museum does not undertake civil or joint liability for the personal safety of event participants.

Article V

During the event, event participants should respect the order of the museum event and ensure the safety of the museum site, the artworks in displays, exhibitions, and collections, and the derived products. If an event causes any degree of loss or damage to the museum site, space, artworks, or derived products due to an individual, persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for losses. The event participant must negotiate and provide compensation according to the relevant legal statutes and museum rules. The museum may sue for legal and financial liability.

Article VI

Event participants will participate in the event under the guidance of museum staff and event leaders or instructors and must correctly use the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities provided for the event. If a participant causes injury or harm to him/herself or others while using the painting tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, or causes the damage or destruction of the tools, materials, equipment, and/or facilities, the event participant must undertake all related liability and provide compensation for the financial losses. Persons not involved in the accident and the museum do not undertake any liability for personal accidents.

CAFA Art Museum Portraiture Rights Licensing Agreement

According to The Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and The Provisional Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Related to the Full Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, and upon friendly negotiation, Party A and Party B have arrived at the following agreement regarding the use of works bearing Party A’s image in order to clarify the rights and obligations of the portrait licenser (Party A) and the user (Party B):

I. General Provisions

(1) Party A is the portraiture rights holder in this agreement. Party A voluntarily licenses its portraiture rights to Party B for the purposes stipulated in this agreement and permitted by law.

(2) Party B (CAFA Art Museum) is a specialized, international modern art museum. CAFA Art Museum keeps pace with the times, and works to create an open, free, and academic space and atmosphere for positive interaction with groups, corporations, institutions, artists, and visitors. With CAFA’s academic research as a foundation, the museum plans multi-disciplinary exhibitions, conferences, and public education events with participants from around the world, providing a platform for exchange, learning, and exhibition for CAFA’s students and instructors, artists from around the world, and the general public. As a public institution, the primary purposes of CAFA Art Museum’s public education events are academic and beneficial to society.

(3) Party B will photograph all CAFA Public Education Department events for Party A.

II. Content, Forms of Use, and Geographical Scope of Use

(1) Content. The content of images taken by Party B bearing Party A’s likeness include: ① CAFA Art Museum ② CAFA campus ③ All events planned or executed by the CAFAM Public Education Department.

(2) Forms of Use. For use in CAFA’s publications, products with CDs, and promotional materials.

(3) Geographical Scope of Use

The applicable geographic scope is global.

The media in which the portraiture may be used encompasses any media that does not infringe upon Party A’s portraiture rights (e.g., magazines and the internet).

III. Term of Portraiture Rights Use

Use in perpetuity.

IV. Licensing Fees

The fees for images bearing Party A’s likeness will be undertaken by Party B.

After completion, Party B does not need to pay any fees to Party A for images bearing Party A’s likeness.

Additional Terms

(1) All matters not discussed in this agreement shall be resolved through friendly negotiation between both parties. Both parties may then sign a supplementary agreement, provided it does not violate any laws or regulations.

(2) This agreement comes into effect on the date that it is signed (sealed) and the relevant boxes are selected by Party A and Party B.

(3) This agreement exists in paper and electronic forms. The paper form is made in duplicate, with Party A and Party B each retaining one copy with the same legal efficacy.

Event participants implicitly accept and undertake all the obligations stated in this agreement. Those who do not consent will be seen as abandoning the right to participate in this event. Before participating in this event, please speak to your family members to obtain their consent and inform them of this disclaimer. After participants sign/check the required box, participants and their families will be seen as having read and agreed to these terms.

I have carefully read and agree to the above provisions.

Event Booking Form

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Reminder:

Hello! Thank you for participating in our public education event and we are looking forward to seeing you! If you cannot attend the event on time, please send a text message to 13261936837 (Liang) to cancel the booking. Please be aware that your eligibility for using the quick booking may be affected If you cancel the booking more than three times. Thank you for your understanding!
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