academic research

Around Leonardo. Pupils, followers, imitators...

2019-09-10 20 people interested

This is an exhibition that— in the year of the celebrations of the five-hundred-year anniversary of the death of the Renaissance genius — focuses on the artistic and cultural climate generated by him in his time that from today (and until August 25) proposes in Venice the Levi Foundation in Palazzo GiustinianLolin. “Leonardo e la sua grande scuola” (“Leonardo and his great school”)— this is the title of the exhibition curated by Nicola Barbatelli— exhibits in fact 24 works that illustrate above all the personality of the so-called “leonardeschi”(“Leonardesques”), some of who attended his workshop in Lombardy, when he was in the service of Lodovico il Moro, and the works by the “leonardeschi” largely crystallized on the master’s style, remaining at a sidereal distance from him. However, they had the great merit of spreading, through their travels, the innovative style of Leonardo also in areas outside from his journeys, like Giovanni Agostino da Lodi (not present in the exhibition) in Venice, Bernardino Luini in Switzerland or Cesare daSesto in southern Italy and Rome.This is also remembered by a historian of Venetian art such as Giovanna NepiScirèin one of the essays accompanying the exhibition’s catalogue (still in print).The works of some of them, from Bernardino Luini to Cesare da Sesto, to the beloved pupil Salaì, to Giampietrino to Marco d'Oggiono, are precisely in the Venice exhibition. In some cases, with works of high level such as “Marta e Maria Maddalena” (“Martha and Mary Magdalene”)or “Maddalena con vaso d’unguento” (“Magdalene with an ointment vase”)of Luini, in particular for his ability to combine Leonardo’s sfumatowith a kind of metaphysical rigour that pervades his figures. And  exactly Magdalene herself is represented in one of the symbol-pictures of the exposition, the “Maddalena discinta” (“Bare-Breasted Magdalene”),that next to the preponderant hand of one of the Leonardesques — perhaps Marco d’Oggiono for the curator, perhaps Giampietrino for a great Leonardo scholar suchas Carlo Pedretti, recently passed away — could also see the hand of the master. Peculiar also a large “San Gerolamo in penitenza” (“Saint Hieronymus Penitent”)by Cesare da Sesto, who enriched Leonardo’s language with revivals from the classical art and from Raphael.The Leonardesques’ distinguishing feature remains — variously declined — the compositional smoothness, the use of sfumato, the diffuse illumination, the melancholic beauty of the subjects, the ambiguity of the faces. Leonardo’s sure presence in the exhibition is however represented by a fragment of a study drawing for the lost fresco, “Battaglia di Anghiari” (“Battle of Anghiari”)— of which the Gallerie dell’Accademia exhibit in this period several sheets — and by that of a “Testa di uomo” (“Man’s Head”), gone over again by the hand of a pupil of the artist. The director of the Levi Foundation, Giorgio Busetto, the president of the cooperative party Venice 2000 Foundation, Giuliano Segre and Francesco Stochino Weissof the Beijing Music Festival Arts Foundation yesterday presented in the opening ceremony. As a matter of fact, the exhibition, after Venice, will fly to China, to be shown first in Beijing starting from the early September, and then in other cities in China. In line also with the musical vocation of the Levi Foundation, in the Chinese stages it will also see musical interludes with the Ugo and Olga Levi Venice Ensemble with students of the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory, that will perform Renaissance music with vintage instrumentsand also passages of Chinese tradition.Enrico Tantucci ...More

“异托邦”的重构——新美术馆学视域下的“太虚之境”...

2019-09-06 8 people interested

雷安通过升级版“异托邦”的打造在美术馆、艺术家、艺术作品与观众之间构建了一种新型关系网。它可以被解读为一次贴近新美术馆学理念的实践。 ...More

没有神的沉浸时代...

2019-09-06 5 people interested

所谓沉浸之作,未必永远是面向公众的绝佳选择,但它们往往不高高在上强调权力,并能提供临时广场,把人从数字生活和重重语境中拽出来,在错觉中想一想,那些比错觉更荒谬的事。这就是埃利希所做到的,并且是他一直被需要的原因。 ...More

解析雷安德罗·埃利希作品中“诡秘的空间意涵”...

2019-09-03 16 people interested

雷安的作品不会使人感觉到沉重,但我们不能以为这种愉悦性是诡秘感的解药,恰恰相反,他的作品不断重设和拼贴我们熟悉的空间印象,使得诡秘感渗透进本来熟知的客体中 ...More

从观众视角看雷安德罗•埃利希的创作...

2019-09-02 8 people interested

巨大而精巧的景观,超现实的情景,乐此不疲的观众……从步入展厅的那一刻起,一种独属于雷安德罗·埃利希(Leandro Erlich)的创作特征,瞬时间涌入视野,冲刷并震颤着人们的感官。 ...More

To Hold a “Knowledgeable” Exhibition - Taking “Exhibition of Selected Works from the National Beiping Art School Period” as an Example...

2019-08-07 52 people interested

The “CAFA Art Museum (CAFAM) Collection Series: Exhibition of Selected Works from the National Beiping Art School Period” (“National Beiping Art School Exhibition” or “the Exhibition”) is a trademark CAFAM collection exhibition since 2012. It has received good response and acclamations from the society. The Exhibition is one of the few monographic collection series in the domestic art museum world. It is a program worth exploration and reference, in the aspects of its selected topics, exhibitions, academic research, publicity and exhibition period. The article will analyze the intellectual and academic qualities of the exhibition’s content and structure.Living in a world filled with thousands of various exhibitions, including the collection exhibitions, we are still struggling to find meaningful ones in them. It is partly due to the limited level of exhibited artworks, but is further because of the out-of-date curatorial ideas and the result of which, lack of exhibitions with substance and reason. In an era of information explosion, when the information people receive increases greatly, the audience are no longer satisfied with the superficial image of artworks. They have more need for the cultural concept and creative intentions behind the world. The quality of the exhibition’s effect lies in the curatorial team’s ideas, which decide every detail of an exhibition. CAFAM is one of the earliest to raise the idea of producing knowledge in art museums in China. It views the art museums as a public space that produces and provides knowledge, and regards “knowledge production” as the historical responsibility and profession of art museums: “Art museums should be a synthesis of ‘knowledge production’. Every action related to art and culture that happens in an art museum can build up the meanings and values of ‘knowledge’; Art museums should take the production of ‘knowledge’ as its starting point and core meaning.” Art museums have historical responsibility in social education. Its exhibitions represent the professional institutions’ perspectives and attitudes. Through exhibitions they lead to discussions about the artworks, promote research on relevant art history research and the dissemination of artistic concepts, for the public to acquire knowledge and new perspectives on art. This is an important channel for the art museums to practice its function. In this sense, when we hold exhibitions in an art museum, we need to consider what the audience need and what we need to show them.Under the guidance of such concept, every step during the preparation of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is centered around how to study the collection, how to make the audience understand the artworks, the theme of “Beiping Art School” and how to help the audience understand the exhibition and learn knowledge. This is a common goal for all the collection exhibitions - with real content and attitude, to “study history and collection profoundly and structurally and form an ‘art history’ writing.” 1.  Cultural Responsibilities and Knowledge Production from the Perspective of the Selected Topics of the National Beiping Art School ExhibitionThe topics of collection exhibitions are very important. The topic is the guideline of an exhibition. A good exhibition’s topic must have high academic level, historical sense, and contain social thinkings about the history and modern time, so that it is fresh instead of cliche and powerless; so that new possibilities could generate from the historical collections, while new academic viewpoint and research result can be passed on to the audience; so that the audience could truly learn things and further push forward the art cause.Why choosing the topic of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition? CAFAM has given to it thorough thinking: First, National Beiping Art School is a miniature and milestone of the development of modern art education in China. In the foreword of the first series exhibition it says: “The National Beiping Art School will was not only the fine art education shrine that gathered the best teachers and students and represented modern Chinese art, but also a cultural front that advocated spirits such as art education for all and the combination of art and science.” Many important thinkings, events and figures of modern Chinese art history are interwoven with the history of the National Beiping Art School, especially in Beijing, without the knowledge of the School would make it difficult to understand art during the Republic of China period. Moreover, as the predecessor of CAFA, the School is the foundation of many of CAFA’s heritage. During its 30-year development in Beijing, it had established close relationship with Beijing’s cultural scene, and was one of a significant aspect of Beijing culture. Thus, the National Beiping Art School is an utterly important and meaningful topic in terms of modern art history. Meanwhile, it is also a paradox: As the first national art school of modern China, a nursery ground for a large number of talents, it is still perceived vaguely, shatteredly, and inadequately by the public and even the academic world. In a long period of time, knowledge and research on the Beiping National Art School was in its primary stage. Its historical meaning is still far from well dug into. In this sense, this topic has filled in the gap of Chinese art history, as well as the gap in most audience’s cognition of art. This is exactly the responsibility of art museums. In the early stage of preparation for the Exhibition, CAFAM took the angle of art history research, and tried to bring in a macroscopical and historic thinking. What the museum needs to do is more than the display of artworks, but more importantly to tell a history, to fill the gap in the audience’s knowledge as well as art history research.2. Knowledge Production and Communication of Collection Exhibition from the Perspective of Organization and Execution of the National Beiping Art School ExhibitionThe successful selection of topic has solved an important problem, but why curating such an exhibition? How would the museum hold such an exhibition and will it be able to successfully hold the exhibition? The answers lie in adequate preparation. Only with adequate preparation the exhibition will naturally happen.In the foreword for the first series exhibition that focuses on western paintings, it mentioned four fundamental works regarding the National Beiping Art School: First, the discovery of important artists and artworks; second, organization and protection; third, featured researches on the collections and the National Beiping Art School; digital archiving. It was because these works have made progress that CAFAM was able to begin the exhibition series. Regarding the execution of the exhibition, the curators hope every part of the exhibition could offer adequate information and effective knowledge for the audience, so that they could understand the exhibition in multiple perspectives and levels, and make new discoveries through the exhibition. To achieve this goal, the curators put great effort in the selection, writing and organization of the exhibition, with the hope that the audience could comprehend the essence of the art during the National Beiping Art School period, and construct a succinct but complete image of the School. (1) Choose angles and accurate positioning of the exhibition according to the practical contentThe National Beiping Art School displayed by the Exhibition almost has no trace in most people’s memory, and that’s why a great deal of image archives and researches are needed to enrich the School’s picture. It is a fine art school with comprehensive disciplines, including painting, music, theater and architecture; in its 30 some years history, there were numerous disciplines and complex staff and student groups, which makes it especially important to choose what content the exhibition would display. In recent years, paintings by the first west painting professors Wu Fading and Li Yishi, like Wu’s Portrait of Woman Wearing Qipao and Li’s Portrait of Chen Shizeng (Picture 9), and works by teachers of the later period such as Sun Zongwei, Qi Zhenqi, Wang Linyi are gradually discovered and organized. Adding the original collection of masterpieces by Xu Beihong, Zhang Daqian, Qi Baishi, Huang Binhong, Chen Banding, Chang Shuhong, Wu Zuoren, Ai Zhongxin, Li Keran and Li Kuchan, CAFAM is equipped with a fundamental collection of the National Beiping Art School period. However, the collection is mainly composed of oil painting, Chinese painting, sketches and pastel painting, which is limited in categories and not able to reflect a complete picture of the School. Even so, another research on teachings during the Naitonal Beiping Art School period indicates that these categories exactly echo with the two most important and longest-established departments - western paintings and Chinese paintings. It is based on this fact that the curation of the Exhibition highlights these two departments, in order to show the main image and artistic characters of the School. In order to fully present the highly distinguished conditions and developments of western paintings and Chinese paintings in that period, the exhibition took the form of series exhibition, and held two feature exhibitions separately for western and Chinese paintings.Exhibitions with a specialized angle might not be comprehensive or grand, but they have more advantage in offering effective knowledge and information to the audience. This is a very important function of collection exhibitions. (2) Select exhibited works by academic standard and professional knowledgeExhibited works are traditionally the main body and most important component of an exhibition. The richest and most emphasized content of any exhibition is the exhibited works. To curate a fruitful exhibition for the audience, we must select works with high artistic value. Many of the exhibited works at the National Beiping Art School Exhibition are very precious works with high academic and artistic value, most of which are exhibited for the first time; some have even filled the gap of academic studies, such as Wu Fading’s Portrait of Woman Wearing Qipao, Li Yishi’s Portrait of Chen Shizeng, Portrait of Wang Mengbai in the western painting sector; and Zheng Jin’s Fox, Magnolia and Peacock, and Chen Shizeng’s album in the Chinese painting. With these precious works once again entered the public sphere through the Exhibition, neglected masters such as Yao Manfu, Xiao Qianzhong, Wang Mengbai, Tang Dingzhi, Yu Shaosong, Yan Bolong, Qi Zhenqi, Fang Bowu were also discovered. In the academic world, these works provide more complete materials for research on art history and construction of fine art memory of the Republic of China era; in the social realm, the public enjoy the opportunity of gaining a more complete, honest and richer knowledge of the art of the National Beiping Art School.These works themselves were not labeled with “National Beiping Art School”, neither were they from the same source, so how did we select and gather them up? It was thanks to the extensive effort of exhibition organizers. Every search and categorization of a work is a transmit of knowledge. A especially good point of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is the serious-minded organization of works based on fact checks. Each and every artwork selected for the exhibition conformed to the exhibition’s standards, and could reflect the message the exhibition would like to pass on. When the exhibition was first organized, CAFAM has clear and strict rules for the works to be selected: First, as the theme is National Beiping Art School, the works must be related with the School - works from the School’s teachers or students, with its date and information clearly recorded, though because of the immature development of researches on the School, we encountered a lot of difficulties in the fact check works. Moreover, the National Beiping Art School people usually generally refer to was founded in 1918 and merged into Central Academy of  Fine Arts in 1949. Since it stopped existing since 1950, with a lot of academic changes happening since then, the works by the right authors must also be created during circa. 1918-1950. This is to guarantee the original presentation of the School’s art styles and to reduce historical misreadings. In order to find most comprehensive collection of works by the National Beiping Art School’s artists, we on the one hand search for names in the School’s staff and student rosters; on the other hand, we went through resumes of artists collected by CAFAM, and located those who were related to the School. After strict screening of works, we selected works that accord with the exhibition standards. But even though, they were not the final selections (all of them were included in the exhibition catalogue for future academic studies). Only the most precious and wonderful artworks were eventually exhibited according to requirements of the exhibition standards and space. The exhibited works could most directly tell the audience what the National Beiping Art School was, and what are the works that could most represent the School. The process of selecting works were also a process of clarifying truth, a process of showing the real picture of works from the National Beiping Art School period. Furthermore, as exhibited works were strictly organized according to the chronological order of the artists’ birth date, it could clearly present the change of era, and make the audience understand more clearly the School’s development in different stages. (3) Organize history and academic background behind works from the perspective of academic research and audience’s acceptabilityAlthough the National Beiping Art School Exhibition was divided into two themes: western painting and Chinese painting, due to the lack of the public’s knowledge of the School, it would confuse the audience if we directly entered narration about the two genres. In this sense, it is particularly important to have a basic research and introduction of the history and development of the School.  Only when the audience understood that part of information that they would understand the artworks’ cultural meaning, historical and artistic value. So firstly, facing the problems of the School’s complicated history of being established and re-established by different governments during the Republic of China period, its confusing naming in different stages and even today, curators conducted basic but clear organization of the history of the School. In the opening exhibition (Western Painting), the curators set up several blocks that provide introduction of the School in text and pictures, to form a vivid, graphic memory of the School. I now list a few of the blocks below: 1) The National Beiping Art School Chronology organized by Cao Qinghui (Picture 14 & 15), which presents detailed time of every change of the School’s name, directors, administrative affiliations, and addresses; 2) Table of the Corresponding Relationships between CAFAM Western Painting Collection’s Authors and the National Beiping Art School History, made by CAFAM, which organizes the exhibited artists’ time of study or teaching at the School, linking abstract history events with concrete paintings and creating a whole piece of picture with the two separate parts; 3) Archives, photos, seals and part of the books collected by the National Beiping Art School Library (Picture 16 - 20), such as the sketch portfolio sent by Zhang Xian to the School in 1936, articles by Xu Beihong and others to mourn Qi Zhenqi’s death, reports on Qi Zhenqi’s death, the School’s 1928 yearbook, archives of all phases of the School collected by CAFA, and “Artworks in Overseas Collections” at the “Realignment” exhibition, etc. These precious and vivid materials carry a great deal of historical message  and traces, bringing the audience to the time of the School, and passing on abundant historical codes to the audience. Meanwhile, the first systematic exhibition of these precious archives further provide materials and fuels to the development of academic research. For instance, in the following “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium, a scholar spoke about the Line between the North and the South issue of the Republic of China art based on Zhang Xian’s sketch portfolio.As many artists of this exhibition were unknown to the public, the Exhibition also sorted out complete resume of each artist (Picture 21), including the artist’s photo, birth date and death date, birthplace, alias, education and work experience, and major academic propositions, and mostly importantly, their teaching time and positions at the National Beiping Art School. Through this resume, the audience would know the artists’ achievements, their relationship with the School, and the important roles these people played in the Republic of China art world. In both the western painting and Chinese painting sectors, the artists’ signs and inscriptions were recognized; especially in the case of the seals, preface and postscripts on Chinese paintings, we especially displayed the text recognized by professional scholars alongside the original artworks, so that the audience could compare the text with that in the paintings, to help themselves better understand the works’ intentions.Except for the above mentioned works and archives, the Exhibition also collected, and displayed relevant research materials of the National Beiping Art School, to provide academic researches with more clues and questions, which makes it a good practice of pushing forward research with exhibition. In order to explain the special characters of the School’s period, especially the relationship between teachers’ creative practices and theoretical research (painting studies), the Chinese painting sector of the Exhibition collected and exhibited the first editions of important essays and articles by the exhibited artists published in the Republic of China period. Some of these materials are already academic classics, but there were hardly any chance for them to be gathered together, especially their first edition; in this case, the Exhibition presented a special scenery by linking these articles together with the thread of the National Beiping Art School. Meanwhile, the organization of these materials also provide systematic clue to Chinese paintings created during the National Beiping Art School period and even the Republic of China period (Picture 22). CAFAM saw this exhibition as a platform to gather materials of value in all layers, and through categorization and organization it hopes to see chemical reactions in thinking and research.The Exhibition’s introduction and presentation of history and academic background shows CAFAM’s academic level and vision. Only when the historical relations of the artworks are organized and the stories behind artworks are well told, that the audience would find it easier to understand the exhibition and the knowledge behind it, so as for the effective communication of knowledge. (4) Conduct systematic and focused academic researches and guide the audience through the exhibitionOnly putting good artworks together won’t make a good exhibition. The real value of a work is the historical value and artistic value it carries. Thus the Exhibition proposes to conduct analyses on artworks not from the superficial and isolated angles of their content, techniques, but from their (art) historical background and development, and to appreciate different works and discover their charisma via comparison. Guiding the audience to appreciate artworks is both the museum’s responsibility and requirement for knowledge circulation. Feature research became the partly hidden and partly visible kite string behind, as well as the academic core of the exhibition. It is exactly this idea that the Exhibition would like to affirm, that we should show the audience content and clues through art historical researches, and tell the audience what to see and how to see. All the research of the Exhibition series was centered around the National Beiping Art School’s history from the perspectives that the audience could easily understand, to re-organize the chaotic and complicated history events, and provide the audience with essence of artistic development below the surface.The academic focus of the exhibitions are clearly set according to the paintings’ genre and time. All three exhibitions include Associate Professor Cao Qinghui’s simple but profound feature research. Such a significant research body, tailored specially for an exhibition, is a rare case. In the western painting sector, Professor Cao Qinghui wrote an essay titled “Mainstream, main thread and others”, in which he conducted analyses on collected works and their authors, while linking them to the development of western art in China in the 20th century, so as to organize the main thread of the introduction and practice of western paintings in the first half of 20th century with the National Beiping Art School as an example. Research found out that most of the western painting teachers of the early National Beiping Art School period have studied abroad, so have the teachers from the late period, that’s why their works are closely related to Japan and Europe and involve complicated teacher-student relationships. To put it simply, the main thread of western painting’s development is linked by overseas students and their students; the main stream is the introduction of realistic paintings and the formation of realistic trend and school in 1940s. The main thread of Chinese painting’s development, on the other hand, was narrated by Prof. Cao Qinghui in his essay “The Transformation of Painting Studies Through Broken Shadows of Chinese Painting”. He analyzed main issues the Chinese Painting Department of the National Beiping Art School faced in the 30 some years history, such as the conflicts between western pedagogy and traditional Chinese painting study, conflicts between officers with overseas study background and Chinese faculties, and ups and downs of logic methodologies of painting study, the evolution of Chinese painting and the development of realism. The two essays not only provided distinctive organization and study of the history of western painting and Chinese painting disciplines of the National Beiping Art School, but also clarified the two disciplines’ faculty background, development process and art styles, narrated the major history events of western painting and Chinese painting, and divided the School’s history into clear phases. Based on this solid research result, the exhibition was curated from the two unique angles of overseas study and painting study, which reveals to the point the core question in changes of faculty and art styles during the School’s development. The exhibition thus offered special viewpoints and clues.The practice of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition indicates that except for good artworks, collection exhibitions must also have profound study and systematic organization of collected works. This kind of study should avoid pinning a meaningless academic label on works or exhibitions, which would only confuse the audience. Such study should go through detailed and accurate academic research and organization, should target certain aspects, while also considering the audience’s acceptability. (5)  Set up the museum’s educational responsibility in historical narration through collection exhibitionsThe Exhibition advocates an academic attitude of restoring and envisaging history. This accords with CAFAM’s educational responsibility to restore history and conduct historical narration.The history is full of variety and causal relationships, but it is also hypercritical and forgetful. Many hidden historical events are equally important in their days, and are an important node in the study of history. The lack of avoidance from history will lead to many misreadings, and thus the lost of vitality. In face of these significant problems, CAFAM should present objective exhibitions. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition, when dealing with the National Beiping Art School during the enemy occupation of Beiping  (it was named National Beijing Art School at the moment), gave that history objective positioning and evaluation.A museum’s display and narration of art history should be systematic and consistent, which is an important embodiment of the museum’s educational function. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition boldly experimented on this aspect, and made some achievements in the two exhibitions on western and Chinese painting. It seems that the question of the National Beiping Art School has been answered after systematic organization of the two painting disciplines, but following them CAFAM releases the third exhibition, named “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts” (Picture 23). In the foreword of the exhibition it says: “The museum narration of the National Beiping Art School, CAFA and the evolution of 20th century Chinese art, based on museum collection, has reflected the teachers and students’ creative trends, ups and downs in styles at the School and CAFA in different historical phases of 20th century. It starts to touch upon the relationship between the academy and the society, teachers and students and creative trends. In order for the narration to be more inherently logical, and to establish and dig deep into the historical relations between collected works, our museum believes that it is necessary to conduct specialized organization of the establishment of CAFA by merging the National Beiping Art School and the Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts through collection and archives.” The exhibition will further complete the  narration of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition series, and in the meanwhile facilitate explicit expression of CAFA’s relationship with its two predecessors, to form a “comparatively complete thematic museum narration”. The thinking is based upon a macroscopic narration and sincere attitude towards academic studies, and demonstrates CAFAM’s systematicness and sense of responsibility in terms of its public education function.3. Exhibition as a Component of Museum Knowledge CirculationThe National Beiping Art School Exhibition also went through profound and serious academic discussions about other topics relevant to the School. It expands the exhibition’s influence, generates more research subjects, and truly promotes research in this aspect. The Exhibition is no longer isolated, but has become a component of museum knowledge circulation. During the exhibition, two important symposium and semniar were settled: “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium (Picture 24) and “High as Mountains and Long as Rivers: Masters of the National Beiping Art School” seminar (Picture 25). The symposium invited over 40 experts from relevant academic field to speak, the content of which was later edited and published as a book. The seminar includes over ten lectures, each of them was unfolded around an old master from the National Beiping Art School. We have also combined seminars with master and doctor courses, encouraged the students to participate in the seminars and write essays based on the issues and their interested points mentioned in the seminars and the exhibitions. Throughout the development of relevant events, the three exhibitions of the National Beiping Art School Exhibition also continuously brewed and formed a positive cycle.Meanwhile, the Exhibition also practiced CAFAM’s good archiving tradition, editing and publishing the Exhibition’s data and research results. The Exhibition’s publication is not only an exhibition catalogue - it also adds in many works that weren’t exhibited, and significant academic materials that cannot be presented at the exhibition, to make the exhibition’s academic and archival quality more complete. The successive release of the publications also helps preserve and circulate the Exhibition’s research fruits, with they themselves become important research books of the field. It is worth mentioning that CAFAM also produced digital exhibition room for the Exhibition using digital technologies. It recorded the exhibition venue with 360-degree cameras, and linked the exhibition’s information to the visual footage, so that the exhibition’s visual effects could be preserved permanently, and the audience could revisit real site of the exhibition on their computers.A good exhibition shouldn’t be a lecture out of a textbook, but should contain rich thinkings of the curators. It’s like creating an unknown world for the audience to discover themselves. The audience could either achieve something following the route designated by the curators, or discover their own interests and inspirations freely. A good exhibition is not the end point of a research or an isolated event, but should be a transmission shaft that passes on more abundant resources, or a fermenter that incubates more fresh matters.The feature collection exhibition in Chinese museums is only at its beginning stage, and the National Beiping Art School Exhibition is a beneficial experiment. It sturdily completed a thematic series research, pushed forward development of relevant academic fields, and enhanced the public’s knowledge of art in the National Beiping Art School period to a certain extent. In this process, the museum’s curatorial idea was also well represented. Although the content is about works and archives of nearly a century ago, the curatorial idea and approach, as well as the ultimate effect of the exhibition, are new. Picture 1: Poster of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 2: Bus stop light box advertisement design of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 3: Large printing of the photo of the Auditorium of the National Beiping Art School and previous names of the School at all stages, put at the entrance of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 4: Photo wall, archive presentation and seal background at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 5: Entrance of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition (3rd Floor). A scroll painting of the National Beiping Art School collected by CAFAM is used as the main image of the exhibitionPicture 6: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 7: At the entrance (3rd Floor) of the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)”  exhibition. The Chinese inscription of “National Fine Art Academy” by Mao Zedong is used as the main imagePicture 8: On-site photo of the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)”  exhibitionPicture 9: Li Yishi, Portrait of Chen Shizeng, Oil on Canvas, 70x130cm, 1920, Collection of CAFAM (This work is one of the two portrait works of Li Yishi from the 1920s that are known to be left to date. It is a very precious artwork and research material)Picture 10: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 11: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition. The reading table and provided materials at the exhibition are spoken highly of by the audiencePicture 12: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 13: On-site photo of the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 14: The National Beiping Art School Chronology compiled by Professor Cao Qinghui, displayed at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 15: Seals of the names of CAFA since its establishment in 1918Picture 16: Photo wall of the valuable photos throughout the history of the National Beiping Art School at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 17: Books collected by the National Beiping Art School Library, displayed at the “Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition; displayed on the upper right corner is the sketch portfolio donated by Zhang Xian in 1936Picture 18: Photo of the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition. The painting in the photo is Qi Baishi’s Eagle donated by the artist to the School in 1935. Displayed on the shelf on the left is Ling Wenyuan’s Discussions on Chinese PaintingsPicture 19: Yu Shaosong’s Fu Tang Lei Gao, displayed at the “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” ExhibitionPicture 20: The National Beiping Art School Chronology compiled by Professor Cao Qinghui, once again displayed at the “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” ExhibitionPicture 21: The “Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School” Exhibition collected and collated detailed resume of the artists. Many materials are made public for the first time. All the 34 resumes were shown in the exhibition area for the audience to quickly enter the atmosphere of the National Beiping Art SchoolPicture 22: The “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” Exhibition organized the representative artworks which were created in the early years after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China and cannot be exhibited on site, and displayed them as a video titled “Artworks in Overseas Collections”.Picture 23: The “Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953)” Exhibition displayed Mao Zedong’s inscription of “National Fine Art Academy” in 1949 for the first time as a piece of workPicture 24: “The National Beiping Art School and Art of Republic of China” symposium was co-held by CAFAM and School of Humanities on April 6, 2013. A group photo was taken after the symposiumPicture 25: “High as Mountains and Long as Rivers: Masters of the National Beiping Art School” seminar was held by CAFAM and School of Humanities in Autumn 2013. It invited renowned scholars in China to conduct lectures on important figures in the history of the National Beiping Art School. The seminar has 10 lectures, and stirred heated discussions.Written by Li Yaochen, Director of Department of Collection, CAFA Art MuseumOriginally published in Issue 6 of University and Art MuseumEdited by Zheng Lijun1. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition has three parts: 1) CAFA Art Museum Collection Series: Selected Works of Western Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School (November 27, 2012 - April 25, 2013); 2) CAFA Art Museum Collection Series: Selected Works of Chinese Painting Created in the Period of National Beiping Art School (June 6, 2013 - December 1, 2013); 3) Realignment: From National Beiping Art School, Yan’an Luxun College of Fine Arts to China Central Academy of Fine Arts (1946-1953) (November 4, 2014 - March 1, 2015).2. The National Beiping Art School Exhibition was listed as one of the Outstanding Exhibitions of National Exhibition Season of Brilliant Collection Works from Art Museums in China by the Ministry of Culture.3. Wang Huangsheng (2012), Art Museum as Knowledge Production, p.13, Central Compilation and Translation Press4. Wang Huangsheng (2012), Art Museum as Knowledge Production, p.14, Central Compilation and Translation Press ...More

The Adventure of Leandro Erlich...

2019-07-19 106 people interested

Fram Kitakawa, founder of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale and Setouchi Triennale Leandro Erlich is an artist that aims to jump out of the generic space of galleries and art museums. He tries to break through the space embodied by the 20th-century urban high-rise architectural complex. It is a bold challenge, from which we can comprehend his role in the contemporary era, and the reason behind his popularity.Some people hang themselves upside down on the wall; some cling to the wall; some hang on the wall with one hand; some completely free up their hands. It is in fact an illusion reflected on a glass board set in a 45-degree elevation angle. People are only lying down on the facade placed on the floor. —BuildingThe reflecting mirror placed in front of the real corridor creates an effect that the corridor is endless. — The CorridorThe clouds in the shape of France, Britain and Japanese Archipelago is the aggregation of irregular patterns formed by multi-layered glasses. - The CloudThe elevator is tightly packed, yet meanwhile there’s a strange man standing in it. — Elevator PitchIn the classroom next door, phantom-like people are looking at this side smiling. — The ClassroomI look through the window at the window of the house across the garden, only to see people standing in front of the window looking at a different direction, just like myself. — Lost GardenThe rolling coin operated laundry machine is only an illusionary image. — LaundryEvery room in the opposite building is changing slowly. — The Room (Surveillance II)When I believe I am looking down at the apartment buildings from high above, I am actually only standing on the floor. — La veredaThe wall of an old architecture is floating in the air. — Window & LadderA few boats are floating on the water surface without water, showing the ripples. — Port of ReflectionsAll walks of life can be seen walking under water from above the pool. — Swimming PoolThe changing rooms, originally single rooms, are connected by multiple rooms. The inside can be seen very clearly. — Changing RoomsLight is leaking from beneath the rooms, but as you enter them you will find that they are only walls. — The DoorsOn a sunny day, you look outside the window only to discover violent storms. — RainIn a hair salon, the mirror in front of my reflects a person behind me who shouldn’t exist. — Hair SalonWalking outside, you’ll see a house hanged up in the air. — Pulled by the RootsGeneric space is a predominant idea of the 20th century, or the modern time.  Mies van der Rohe believes that the capital and labor are congregated in the urban area, which leads to a metropolis full of high-rise buildings and composed of steel and glass walls. In fact, cities that develop around high-rise building complex are appearing all over the world, in China, Europe, America and Africa. This kind of space is detached from the multiplex characteristics of life and historical experience, and becomes a void space like laboratory. By changing the dividing wall of a room, a building can be easily transformed into a residency, office or restaurant. There is no more convenient building than the ones with well-adjusted indoor air. People in such space is counted and manipulated as a quantifiable figure.The space has lost the history and culture peculiar to the land, while people are defined by demographic statistics -  this is exactly the viewpoint that shroud the whole world impacted by the global market economy. Art is also developing under the same background. The ‘white box’ exhibition space encircled by white high walls is the space incised from the surrounding, having the same appearance in all countries and regions. This is called spatial balance. In such space, works can purely show their core concept, like in a science laboratory. In here we can clearly understand the jumping thoughts of the artists.However, here lies a big question.Does the ideal abstract space really exist?The problem we are truly facing is the constant deterioration of global environment, the increasing wealth gap one-sidedly created by the market economy controlled by transnational capitalists, and the capitalist moral degeneration resulted from it, leading to the loss of individual sensibility, mechanization and the disappearance of local culture. Since ancient times, artists have been gradually disclosing the relationship between human and nature, and civilization in the midst of the crisis of civilization and at the dawn of new eras. During this process, they use a technique mastered by human.The cave paintings in Altamira and Lascaux are on the one side pray for human’s toil in risking their life capturing middle-sized beasts, and on the other side pray for the pain the captured animals suffered. They embody the united relationship between human and nature. In any subsequent era, art has been the reflection of the relations between nature, society and human. In the vast universe formed accidentally, for the human race born at one moment of the universe, art is the only index of our self-cognition. Without that index human race won’t exist. Like language and literature, art is an index with universal meaning (a very good example is the paintings by the aboriginals). Leandro Erlich tries to break the boundaries by making use of the difference between materials such as glass boards, glass and water, and create boundaries in intangible generic space by using high-quality materials produced in modern industry. This is his creative practice.Everyone is at the terminal point of global information, drowned in all kinds of information, signs and rumors, while believing that we can freely choose and collect certain information. However, they are only the information manipulated within the limit permitted by power, capital and the Internet.These information is fixed in a specific image, and leads to a time that art stops progressing. It seems that we can freely choose from endless information, but the composition and thought pattern are becoming stereotyped.At this time, Leandro Erlich emerged.Either a work is put in Beijing, Johannesburg or London, people can appreciate and understand it in the same way. This is the exhibition standard of 20th century art in white boxes such as galleries and art museums, as well as the 20th century philosophy. Such generic space shares the same character with market economy, international finance and the Internet, and is the most influential (best) idea of the 20th century. It is fair to say that art develops based on generic space.— To judge a thing with the same viewpoint no matter where. —So, in order to transcend the generic space, how does Leandro consider it? Let us take a look at the meaning of Chinese characters, an ancient pictograph.移す (utsusu) →To copy, transcribe, keep and record.映す (utsusu) →To reflect an item’s original look as the light illuminate other items.映す (utsusu) →To duplicate, reprint and copy the original.The three words, with the same etymological origin, changed gradually and form the modern usage of “utsusu” (They share the same Japanese katakana and pronunciation).The different kinds of works by Leandro Erlich, to speak about them in Japanese or write about them in Chinese characters, are to show the context of “utsusu” in a brief and one-time-only place.He seals the space’s time here, like the time sealed in a movie. In his perspective, generic space has become an exceptionally indifferent space without accumulation of time. Thus, his method is to break through his own generic space by transferring a generic space.Modern space is only a thing without the concept of time. Leandro Erlich raised here a theory to generate space by transferring, duplicating and moving the subject. The object changes according to the human (subjects)’s behaviors. This is also the relationship between man and nature since ancient times. In Chinese characters there are homonyms that show turning points. I try to explore this relationship with the different meanings contained in these words. This is what Ernst Mach talked about “”, and the world described in synoptic gospels since ancient time. To simply put it, it is because I have sympathy for the word “stand”, that my reflection in the mirror is standing.I want to talk about the certainty in Leandro Erlich’s creative practice. As he is having his exhibition in Beijing, I would like to elaborate with the “Six Principles of Chinese Painting”, written by Chinese painter and critic Xie He, who lived in the fifth and sixth century, in the preface to his book The Record of the Classification of Old Painters. This is a time that Buddhism was introduced to China from India, as well as a time that ‘art’ itself is questioned as for how it can understand and reflect the nature and society human feel about. At least in Japan, the final destination of Asian culture, ‘Six Principles of Chinese Painting’ is regarded as an important art theory.The basic elements of painting it raised have also been applied outstandingly in modern art.Correspondence to the Object: the modeling abilitySuitability to Type: color perceptionDivision and Planning: space compositionThese elements are what Leandro Erlich, who was born in an architects’ family, best at, and the reasons why his works are vivid and easy to understand.Transmission by Copying: mastering of the classic, or the forefathers’ achievementSuch learning pattern could ensure the modernity of his works. In other words, it offers the audience a new spatial experience. From here we can see Leandro Erlich’s knowledgeability.Bone Method: the unique technique and feeling of the artistBased on the above-mentioned, as I talked about Leandro Erlich’s personal art concept earlier, he is creating a void in homogeneous space by “transferring, copying and reflecting”, and thus creating a new and rich space. The aforementioned five principles can be obtained with practice, except for the last one which is Spirit Resonance.This is the conversation between the work and the audience. In other words, it  points to the realization of a new spatial experience. What Xie He believes is that the overall energy of a work of art may impact the audience. It is full of vitality as if it has the power to shake mountains and rivers. And to judge if a work has that energy, we should see if it has the overall vitality. It seems that Leandro Erlich has such works with spirit resonance.In Buenos Aires, Leandro Erlich’s hometown, there’s a public work named The Democracy of the Symbol. The work covered the top of the city’s iconic monument, and showcased the duplicate of the top in front of the museum. The work seems to be “hidden” before “transferred”, but it is actually made separately after the original was hidden. Although I haven’t been to Buenos Aires, but I heard that it’s a popular place for dating lovebirds and protesting people. Society, politics and power co-exist in this place. Since ancient Greece, squares have been a place for people to voice themselves, sometimes they could also be place of suppression. What does the embodiment mean here? Leandro Erlich lives in South America, but his thought penetrates the whole modern time. It reminds people of Christo’s  artwork ‘Wrapped Reichstag’, or Eisenstein’s movie Battleship Potemkin. Homogeneous city also rises with the support of power. For modern people, can the art museums completely be a place of freedom? This remains to be questioned.Moreover, in Japanese countryside Echigo-Tsumari, in an exchange museum designed by Hiroshi Hara that reminds people of oasis in a desert, Leandro Erlich created a building similar to the structure of urban architecture in the wading pool, as if he was criticizing the modern civilization by “transferring, duplicating and reflecting” the constantly extending modern generic space. People can see the building reflected on the water from the balcony, and can also go into the pool to have fun. He started to move his creative place to squares and countryside, one step closer to the nature which is suffering from destructions.20th century is filled with symbolized information, programmed human and stereotyped space, while Leandro Erlich initiated a bold adventure, trying to break through the leading generic space with the power of art. He’s like Don Quixote who longs to time travel to the Middle Ages, or a modern-time warrior. Leandro Erlich was born in the middle of South America of the old time. Just like Garcia Marquez trying to create a world that overthrows European and North American values with literature, he tries to create a world with his artworks - from the white cubic of galleries and museums to squares that stand for civil society, his footsteps extend to the gradually degenerating, formalizing cities. Let us keep an eye on his adventures.Written by Fram Kitakawa, founder of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale and Setouchi Triennale Translated by Liu YanchaoProofread by Lu YufanEdited by Zheng Lijun ...More

Zhang Zikang: Leandro Erlich - --Begin from Amazementing, the Game of Seeing and Believinge...

2019-07-19 95 people interested

Zhang Zikang, Director of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine ArtsCAFA Art MuseumThe Art Museum of Central Academy of Fine Arts(CAFAM) held a solo exhibition for the well-respected artist Leandro Erlich. The exhibition, titled ‘Leandro Erlich: The Confines of the Great Void’, is, which is the mostanother important onesolo exhibition of the artist’s after the onehis solo exhibition in Karlsruhe Art and Media CenterZKM in, 2015in Germany, and anotherthe one in MoriArt Museum, 2017 in Tokyo Japan. in 2017.Prior to this, Leandro’s artworks has attracted massive attention of manytheaudiences all over the world. Through the fermentation of the Internet and social media, his work has reached a wider audience, inspired them to produce numerous photos and interactions on social media. In some sense, the concept of Leandro’s artwork ishas been betterfinished by the participation of the audience. His work also makes people realize that the form of art is being changed by both the audience and the artists, in such a deep interaction with the public. I think this is where the unique charm of Leandro’s art work lies. Through his art work, we get the chance to think about contemporary art and its exhibitions, and about how to form a new viewing relationship with the audience under the catalysis of the new media culture. Losst, vagueness, perceptual confusion---these are the feelings that Leandro’s artworks often brings to the audience. As Leandro said, there is a wide experimental field between seeing and believing. With the spatialpsychologicalsubversion of the ordinary space, such as spatial displacement and architectural illusion, Leandro explores the misplaced problem of the existence ofthe fuzzy boundary betweenexistential reality and consciousness, creates a situation in which the reality and the illusory overlap, and triggers the audience to rethinkthe perception andits diversity.  In order to best express the concepts he wants to elaborate, media and visual forms such as installations, ready-made products, sculptures, videos and even paintings have been adopted by Leandro, and he has successfully created many cultural landscapes that challenge our perception ofperceptual inertia. In Chinese proverbs, thereThere is a sayingin Chinese called “Seeing is believinge”, but Leandro’s artworks makes us feel that “seeing might not be believing”, because this visual artist who was born on the South American continent has made usnaturallymade us wonder ifthink thatthe South American’s magical realistm cultural genes have deeply influenced him. His works have provided a possibility that what we see might not be real.In Leandro’s work, there are many places without clear boundaries--- a Pool that seems to descend from the skyappear out of nowhere, a house that is Pulled up by the RootsUprootedfrom the ground, a closed DoorThe Doors with light leaking from the crackbeneath,a few boats that float on the water that looks like mirror etc. These daily scenes evoke the viewer’s’ sense of reality, like an entrance to “heterotopia”. It echoes tois similar towhat Lao TzuLaozi said, “There is something concrete in the emptiness and there is something real in the ambiguity.”, across two distant cultural time and space. The combination of reality and representation brings illusion to the audience, confusing the direct perception of the human eyes, bringing the audience into the imaginary world which is full of mirroring images.Wherever Leandro Ehrlich’s work goes, there will always be a carnival that embraces visual art. His humor is sharp, and the surprise is just a prelude.In the process of slowly unfoldingAs the storyslowly unfolds, the many pendulumshints he has buriedleft for us are worthy of ourcareful subtle taste.pondering.Written by Co-curator: Zhang Zikang, Director of the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine ArtsCAFA Art MuseumTranslated by Liu YanchaoProofread by Lu YufanEdited by Zheng Lijun ...More

艺海征途七十年——著名版画家美术教育家和美术理论家王琦从《晚归》谈起...

2019-07-02 58 people interested

采访时间:2009年7月4日15:00至16:30地点:北京 王琦先生家中访谈双方:王琦:中国著名版画家、木刻运动家、美术教育家和美术理论家。历任中央美术学院教授,中国美术家协会党组书记和常务副主席,中国版画家协会主席,《美术》、《版画》杂志主编、《美术研究》、《世界美术》副主编,为新中国的美术、版画、美术教育和美术理论事业的发展做出了杰出的贡献。刘海平:中央美术学院人文学院博士研究生。著名版画家、木刻运动家、美术教育家、美术理论家王琦先生,已九十一岁高龄,但身体很健康,经常进行艺术创作。他拿出珍藏多年的《晚归》素描创作稿、版画和珍贵的历史照片,与夫人韦贤女士一起,谈起他创作这件代表作的过程,并充满智慧与乐观地与我们分享他为人民、为艺术奋斗一生的许多珍贵故事和经验。刘海平:王先生,前一阵子在中央美术学院美术馆《名师捐献作品展》上,看到您的很多作品,其中就有《晚归》。 王琦:对,我捐献给中央美术学院100多幅作品。他们出了一本画集,我拿给你看看。《晚归》是1955年的作品。但我解放以前的好多作品都没有了,现在展览看不到了。刘海平:谢谢您!您最早是从20世纪30年代开始进行版画创作的吗?《冰天雪地中的游击队员》是您最早的作品吗? 王琦:那是最早在报纸上发表的一张,是1938年。现在中国美术馆和四川有,中央美术学院有复印件。《晚归》这件作品印地就很多了,现二十几个国家的博物馆都有这件作品的收藏。已经印了好几十张,现在版子模糊了。这是1955年我用钢笔画的《晚归》的原稿,是单色的。我还没有给别人看过,也从来没发表过。当时我就是根据这个刻成套色版的。我觉得这个稿子比我《晚归》的版画还好!这是我保存的1979年日中友好协会在日本组织展览时的海报,上面有两幅作品照片,是《晚归》和彦涵的一件作品,当时很受欢迎。《晚归》在苏联的《创作》杂志上也发表过,那是1957年,李桦和力群两个人带了中国的版画去苏联作展览。当时《创作》杂志就发表了《晚归》。刘海平:能请您谈谈《晚归》的创作过程吗? 王琦:那是在东北。我们中央美术学院的教师当时每年都有两三个月的创作假,就是5、6、7三个月。我们那时候一方面教学,另一方面每年两三个月下去体验生活。老师学生都要去,你自己选择地方,到工厂也可以,到农村也可以。搜集素材,搞创作。光靠教学,自己不搞作品是不行的。老师没有作品,学生他也不买你的帐啊。学生是自己下去,老师也是自己下去。同学是分成小股,两三个人一起。1955年,我当时是在东北农村。看到实景后画了一幅写生,现场画速写,回来再画成这张搞创作的钢笔画,准备刻版。我是1952年到中央美术学院任教的,其实1955年创作这幅作品的时候,还在审查我。为什么审查我呢?因为1955年的肃反运动,反胡风。我是中央美术学院唯一一个和胡风有关系的人,就被揪出来了。胡风和我的关系很好。当然,他是老前辈了!他是鲁迅很得意的学生。所以我们搞版画的,鲁迅不在了,就非常尊敬胡风。他也很喜欢版画!他抗战时期编的《七月》杂志,和后来主编的《希望》杂志,都用版画。所以后来反胡风的时候,首先就把我揪出来了,斗争了七八次。(笑)我是要被重点批判的,然后就是审查,从1955年8月一直到第二年3月。我们在东北农村体验生活,是1955年5、6、7三个月,回来8月就开始反胡风。这幅作品是1955年的10月,我在审查期中做出来的。刘海平:《晚归》这件作品至今看来还是很有抒情性的,很浪漫。 韦贤:当时就有人问他,你怎么在受审查的时候还能创作出这样的作品?他说,我相信党,相信党不会冤枉一个好人的!我这个人没问题,干吗害怕呢? 王琦:我回答他们说,我当时心情很愉快,根本没有什么的。《晚归》这幅作品在当时来说,在50年代可以说是我的代表作。但因为当时我在审查之中,所有的报刊都不能发表我的作品。到1956年3月,审查结束了,《人民日报》就发表了这幅作品。接着报纸刊物来约稿的人就多了。这幅作品在《人民日报》第一次发表了以后,全国的很多报纸刊物都发表了,有二三十家。当时是一次印了15份,国家都收购了。当时“对外文化委员会”,组织这幅作品到十五个国展览。后来,陆陆续续又印了一些,到很多国家展览过。我有一个在对外文委工作的好朋友,他已经去世了,知道这幅作品被很多国家收藏。1956年《晚归》在前苏联发表,后来在十几个国家的报刊都发表了,现在全世界有二十几个国家的博物馆有收藏。在我自己的作品来讲,《晚归》是被收藏最多的。1956年在苏联作展览的时候,当时俄罗斯共和国美术家协会的主席施马林诺夫,你知道他吗?他很有名的,在卫国战争的时候,他搞了一套石版画《不能忘记,不能饶恕》,反映希特勒对苏联的残暴。他认为这幅作品对夕阳光的处理非常巧妙。苏联组织了很多画家和批评家开座谈会,开座谈会时,施马林诺夫的发言,对这幅作品评价很高。刘海平:您当时是不是只用了两块版,就把夕阳光的效果表现出来了。 王琦:三块版。一块版是黄颜色,第二块版是紫色,深紫色,第三块版是黑白颜色。这幅作品是来自我对自然的感受,在中国农村对自然的感受。先画成速写,再整理成我给你看的素描稿,再刻版。当时审查的时候,是不让我上课的,在家里待着,闹地很紧张。我不想浪费时间,就在那个时候刻的这个作品,那时候刻了三幅,这一幅最好。刘海平:现在来看这件作品,还是很美。 王琦:也没有什么。现在这块版子不行了。刘海平:能重刻吗? 王琦:我的眼睛不行了,那次动了手术,视网膜脱落,视力就只有0.2。1989年刻了最后一张版画作品。就是这最后一张作品《运河码头》。这张作品刻完以后,刀子就封起来了。所以这幅作品叫“封刀之作”。《古墙老藤》也是晚期的作品,是晚期的代表作了。这张作品在外国的博物馆收藏也很多,但是没有《晚归》这么多。其实《晚归》是副产品。我到东北去,也不是为了要到农村。我到东北去,是到汽车厂。长春汽车厂是我们国家1955年刚刚才开始建的。开始建厂的时候我去了,第二年汽车生产出来,出厂我又去了。《晚归》是在长春附近的郊区写生的。露天煤矿我也去过。1954年我到了辽宁的阜新煤矿。当时阜新发现露天煤矿,是中国的两大矿之一。现在那里的煤都采完了。刘海平:把您的版画创作分三个时期:早期1938年——1949年,中期1950年——1976年,晚期1977年之后,可以这么分吗? 王琦:抗日战争时期可以算一个时期,解放以后从50年代到文革以前算一个时期。然后文革以后改革开放,又是一个时期。基本可以分成这三个时期。《晚归》是第二个时期,50、60年代那时候的许多工业建设题材的作品,都是来自每年三个月体验生活时积累的素材。抗战时期我是在大后方,所以那时期的作品没有在前方战斗的题材。当时我主要是在重庆,搞木刻运动。1942年我在重庆参与组织成立“中国木刻研究会”,负责推动全国的木刻活动。我们联系全国的木刻家,搞展览会和木刻协会,我还同时给三个报纸编木刻副刊。1942年和1943年我们组织了两次“全国双十木刻展”,展出了全国各地木刻家的作品,还有很多周恩来带到重庆的延安木刻家的作品,当时还第一次把中国的新兴版画送到国外(前苏联、英国、美国、印度四国)作了展览。直到“木研会”1946年迁到上海,更名为“中华全国木刻协会”,在四年半多的时间里,我们做木刻的人在重庆一直在共产党的领导下,站在文艺斗争的前列。我当时的作品,题材主要是反映大后方城市里面的下层人民,劳动人民的生活,没有前方的题材。李桦他就不同,他是在战区,所以他有很多抗战题材的作品。古元他是在农村,在陕北农村,他的作品农村题材就多。你看他的农民题材的作品就很多。彦涵又不同,彦涵他是在部队,所以彦涵搞战斗题材比较多。刘海平:后来1946年,您和李桦、野夫等先生一起在上海做了《抗战八年木刻展》。 王琦:对。那是1946年。我带了900多幅作品从重庆到上海,交给了展览组的负责人麦秆,我是编辑组组长。那些作品是全国的作品,都是很珍贵的,选上了897幅。《抗战八年木刻展》这个展览会在中国新兴版画史上,那是影响最大的一次展览,以后再也没有这个规模了。不单是作品多作品好,社会影响也很大!二十几家报纸出了特刊作介绍。包括国民党的报纸也出了。他们没办法嘛,因为社会影响很大。展览开幕那天,9月18日,我们到鲁迅的墓前献花圈。这是当时的合影,这张照片是在鲁迅墓前照的,中间这位是田汉的夫人,《渔光曲》的词作者安娥,当年渔光曲不得了的。还有这张照片,也很珍贵,是在展览会场上。其中这一位是内山完造,鲁迅的朋友。他是上海内山书店的老板。他的兄弟,内山嘉吉,是中国版画的第一个老师。1930年,鲁迅先生请内山嘉吉在中国开办了一个木刻讲义班,班上有十三个人。所以中国的新兴版画为什么从1931年算起呢?就是因为这个木刻讲义班。周恩来当时是中共代表团的团长,他接见了我们木刻会代表,就在中共代表团上海办事处,马斯南路47号。周恩来亲自接见了我们几个人,我、李桦、野夫、陈烟桥还有两个漫画家,最近去世的丁聪,和余所亚。两个漫画家和四个木刻家。在回忆录中我写了,送你一本吧。刘海平:谢谢您!您参与的木刻运动是从20世纪30年代开始的吗? 王琦:那是1938年以后,30年代末期。我基本上是属于40年代的人。38年3月底,上海美专的老师倪贻德邀请我到武汉,在三厅开始工作。三厅就是在武汉的政治部第三厅,厅长是郭沫若,田汉是三厅艺术处处长。三厅是国民政府军事委员会政治部的一个文化宣传机构。周恩来当时是政治部副部长,主管三厅的工作。所以三厅其实是以共产党员为主体,在周恩来的直接领导下开展统一战线的工作。当时《新华日报》上全文发表了毛泽东的《论持久战》,周恩来到三厅来做报告,是对《论持久战》最好的阐释。这是我第一次见到周恩来。我在三厅工作是从1938年4月到8月,在三厅呆了几个月以后,我就和冯法祀、王式廓一起商量去延安。7月下旬时,三厅的罗工柳也去了延安“鲁艺”。8月我到了延安鲁艺,我是“鲁迅艺术学院”美术系第二期的学员。彦涵也是第二期的。我们的木刻老师是沃渣和胡一川。院长是周扬。我在这里第一次拿起木刻刀从事木刻创作。刘海平:您的版画创作在抗战以后是不是有了一些变化。 王琦:50、60年代那时候的题材是工业题材多。后来是农村的题材,再后来比如说《造船厂》这样的作品,又是工业题材。到了后期,改革开放以后,主要是城市的题材。直线多了,装饰感强了,表现城市的速度和运动感。比如说《大街上的旋律》系列。其中一幅作品在大英博物馆有收藏。当时那位东方部的主任,叫龙安妮的英国女士,很欣赏这幅作品。晚期我的版画要分作两组了,藤、大树算是一组,城市街道的题材是一组。80年代的时候我不常到外地去了,接触外界的东西少了,主要就是在城市里面,所以搞了一组城市的建筑作品,就是《大街上的旋律》、《都市交响曲》。当时年纪大了,七十多了,跑不动了。所以出去体验生活必须要在六十岁以前。刘海平:80年代那时候像《古墙老藤》这样的作品,您的风格就变了。 王琦:对,我要是眼睛不坏的话,我的版画风格还要变。正要变的时候,眼睛不行了,不能动刀了。当时想要让我的版画变得更开放,浪漫主义的东西要更多!我的东西,现实主义的东西太多,浪漫主义的东西比较少。你说《晚归》浪漫,但是还不够,这个作品是有一点“诗意”。艺术基本是两大流派,一个是现实主义,一个是浪漫主义。现实主义,表现能够看得见的、摸得到的世界。浪漫主义表现脑子里想象的东西多。所以浪漫主义是天空,现实主义是地面。要把现实主义的地面和浪漫主义的天空连成一片。我的作品,现实主义的地面太多了,没有飞跃到天空里去。我的作品到后期的时候有一点浪漫主义的东西了,像《大街上的旋律》就已经有一点了,但是晚了,年纪不行了。《人民万岁》这组作品中,象征主义的东西也多起来了。这是表现人们在天安门广场纪念周恩来总理。这幅作品中,有一只举火炬的巨手。天安门上哪有这么个巨手呢?不可能有的。这是一种象征,表现周总理。这一幅人民英雄纪念碑前的鹰,是要表现打倒四人帮。这些作品里,想象的东西多起来了。也是因为我当时年纪大了,不能多出去接触现实生活了,但脑子可以尽量地放开,可惜眼睛又不行了,不能再刻了。刘海平:那您可以画画,80年代以后您画了很多水墨画。 王琦:对,但我的水墨画,跟一般国画家又不一样。国画家的画一般不会像我这样构图。我的皴法和一般国画家也不一样,有一点版画的味道。你注意一下我画中的线条,国画家不这么画的,国画家可能更注重传统的皴法。但其实皴法是千变万化的!我不管,我就按照自己的方法画。我的朋友看了我的画,就说“你的皴法,国画家是没有的”。这是我自己的皴法。还有用线,我把版画里的很多因素放到国画里去了。所以我的画我不叫它中国画,就叫水墨画。 因为我这画里面,中国传统的东西很少。我基本上是按照西洋的画法,用自己的素描,用干墨、焦墨绘成底子,然后再用淡水墨铺第二层,最后用颜色。像《峡江滩石》,看上去像中国画,但皴法完全不同。中国画如果画这些山,就会用很多传统的皴法来画。我用线,还有块面,用大块的黑、白、灰的关系来画,这是从版画转过来的。刘海平:中国的版画创作,在80年代之后是不是也是有了一个很大的变化。 王琦:变化很大。首先是版画的品种多了。原来就是木刻,你看抗战时期就是木刻一种,到了50年代的时候增加了铜版、石版,就是三版。现在版画的品种多极了!各种版、各种材料、工具,太多了!去年我到深圳参观“观澜国际版画原创基地”,那里的机械比国外的还要好,有最好的德国的印刷机,是深圳的宝安地区搞的。现在这个观澜国际版画原创基地,恐怕在亚洲都是第一。我们去参观的时候,李岚清也去了。好多版画家都到那里去创作,在那里有工作室。刘海平:版画在中国有特殊的意义。从抗战开始,到50、60年代以后,版画一直有很大的作用、有自己的特点。 王琦:中国的新兴版画是从1931年算起,到现在有70多年了。我的回忆录《艺海风云》中有很多珍贵的第一手材料。因为我记忆力比较好,还有我有笔记,记日记。比如这一章《在集训班中的日子》,那时候有很多发言,只有我才有记录。那是文化大革命开始的时候,1965年,文艺界的有600多人,要集中训练。我们在里边关了三个多月,但天天吃好的。每人8毛钱一天的伙食,大鱼大肉。后来不行了,美院的革命群众说,要“把他们揪回来!”回来就完了,挨批斗。这里边都有生动的描写。可惜这第一版回忆录里面集训班的发言,我写的是某某某发言,要是把真名字写出来就更好了。现在第二版,我要用真名字,有些人也不在了。《王琦文集》中有。这本书中央美院图书馆有两套。这个第一版的回忆录,在浙江美院图书馆有两套,因为看的人多,翻烂了。后来这书没有了,因为印得很少,只印了两千本。现在版画很冷落,是低潮期。好多学版画的学生都转行了。不过他们画得也很好。刘海平:现在中央美术学院版画系有很多个工作室,同学们的能力都很强。作品种类非常丰富。 王琦:现在版画系的主任是苏新平吧。版画系现在也是很不错的。刘海平:您历年来曾主编过《美术》、《美术研究》、《世界美术》、《版画》等许多期刊。 王琦:我是个编辑家。别人说我是木刻家、教育家,其实还有编辑家。为什么搞编辑?搞理论和搞编辑是有关系的。是从1938年作《战斗美术》开始的。当时我和卢鸿基两个人当主编,还有王朝闻。当时卢鸿基、王朝闻、洪毅然他们三个人,从在国立杭州艺专当学生时,就搞理论,鼓吹“为人生而艺术”,出了一个刊物叫《艺术论坛》。王朝闻和卢鸿基是搞雕塑的,洪毅然是搞绘画的,原来都不是搞理论的。后来这三个人都成了理论家。王朝闻就专门搞理论了。洪毅然搞美学,是美学家,他去世了。解放以后我到《版画》作主编,当时是李桦、力群和我,我们三个人。王朝闻到50年代,就是1953年的时候,让洪毅然转告我“叫王琦不要刻木刻了,搞理论。搞木刻的人多得很,你一个人不搞没有关系。搞理论的人太少。”我没有听他的,我还是按照我的办法,一边拿笔,一边拿刀。双管齐下,这是对的。作创作和作理论,两者交叉,我觉得一点不矛盾,互相有帮助。理论会指导我的创作,创作反过来会映证我的理论。我九十岁的时候,他们开了个研讨会,很多人发言,说我有理论家兼创作家的特点。邵大箴也有发言,我请他来主持这个会。我以前是《世界美术》的副主编,当时邵大箴是编辑。朱丹当时管《美术研究》。后来又把我调到《美术》杂志当主编了。那是1980年,打倒四人帮以后,美协刚刚恢复成立,让我和王朝闻两个人当《美术》的主编,就是双主编。我从1980年,81年、82年、83年、84年,干了五年。更早的时候是在50年代,我作《美术研究》的常务编委,那时候没有主编,我们当时是和华东分院合作办《美术研究》。就是中央美术学院华东分院,后来改了,不叫分院了,叫浙江美术学院。我当时是三个常务编委之一,还有王逊,他文化大革命时去世了。浙江方面是金冶。后来我又主编了一些丛书,《中国新文艺大系1976——1982•美术集》还有《当代中国的美术》,还有《100万个为什么》丛书的美术集。李凌编音乐部分。1991年时,又调我到美协当党组书记。“六四”以后,中宣部干部局的副局长到美院来,管文艺的副部长点名叫我去美协。那时我都七十二岁了,都退了。中组部特批,我还得继续工作。整个文联系统离休的干部,然后再拖出来的,就是我一个。去美协作党组书记,当了八年。我以为那一年马上就要换届了,因为到时候了,我顶多再干一年。结果一拖就拖了八年,因为老不开代表大会。整整八年,从七十二岁到八十岁,才真正退下来。后来是刘大为,他现在也退了,现在是吴长江。刘海平:您同时还在版画家协会任主席。 王琦:对,我在版画家协会是主席。但是版画家协会没有经过民政部批准,所以严格地讲它并不合法。但是它影响很大。那是1981年,在黄山开会成立版画家协会的时候,轰轰烈烈。赖少其,他以前是新四军,那时候是安徽省委宣传部副部长,现在也去世了,是他发起的。五六十个代表在黄山,成立中国版画家协会。现在这个协会还是存在的,但是没有什么活动,不能活动,名存实亡。但各个省区有活动。江苏省版画家协会有活动,黑龙江省版画家协会有活动,甘肃省版画家协会有活动。因为它们都是经过省民政局批准注册的。刘海平:您是从20世纪30年代就开始作美术理论和编辑工作的吗? 王琦:我从小就当编辑了。(笑)当小学生时,就编壁报,要用钢笔字写,自己写,自己还画刊头。每期用仿宋体钢笔字写在一张铅笔画纸上,有六七千字,还有插画、刊头。这是我后来长期从事美术编辑工作的最早预习。喜欢版画是后来到了中学的时候,看了比利时版画家麦绥莱勒刻的四本连环画,开始了解。但是我搞版画是归功于抗日战争。如果抗日战争不爆发的话,我就留学法国去了。1934年我开始在上海美专学习,我在上海的时候,油画成绩最好。刘海粟、倪贻德他们很欣赏我。但我当时就非常喜欢版画,上海当时“第一届苏联版画展”对我以后走版画的道路影响很大。但我在上海搞的主要是油画。1937年“七七事变”爆发,我回到了重庆,留学的梦想结束了。我第一个开的个人画展,是1943年,在重庆搞的。是油画最多,第二才是版画。但这第一次的个人画展,到现在一张画都没有留下来,也没拍照。那时候也没有照相机,也不像现在有数码的材料这么方便。应该留下一些就好了。刘海平:王先生您现在还经常画画、写字,您的书法也很好。 王琦:我从小就练习书法,我父亲是书法家。四川人很讲究练书法,我从小就练。我现在一个星期画一张画。一年五十二张。现在我的画恐怕比版画要多了。以前版画一年只能作几张。改革开放以后刻地比较多。街道,树的系列等等,一年刻个十几张都有。刘海平:您的水墨画和书法作过展览吗? 王琦:做过几次。2007年在北京,中国美术馆,作了一个展览,《王琦水墨新作展》。我九十五岁的时候还要再开一个展览,一百岁时再开一个,如果还能活到一百岁的话。王琦简历:王琦 四川省重庆市人,1918年生。中国著名版画家、木刻运动家、美术教育家和美术理论家。1937年毕业于上海美专,1938年在延安鲁迅艺术学院美术系学习,是“中华全国木刻协会”的主要负责人。1949年后历任中央美术学院教授,《美术》、《版画》主编,《美术研究》、《世界美术》副主编,中国美术家协会党组书记和常务副主席,中国版画家协会主席。著有《艺术形式的探索》、《王琦文集》等多种理论著作。1991年获“中国新兴版画杰出贡献奖”,1992年获日本创价学会颁发的“富士美术馆荣誉奖”,1995年获法国敬业与成就协会颁发的金十字勋章,2003年获中国文联、中国美术家协会颁发的“中国美术金彩奖终生成就奖”。《晚归》 王琦 24.3×17cm 套色木刻 1955年画面表现夕阳照耀下中国农村的自然风景。两辆运草的马车,一前一后形成呼应,在熔金般晚霞的映照下,行进在归途中。茂密的树枝和惊飞的群鸟,营造出一种抒情诗般的优美境界。这幅作品参加了1956年的第二届全国版画展,在《人民日报》副刊首次发表后,先后在国内外报刊发表30多次,并于1950至1970年代十几次出国展出,被世界各国二十几家博物馆收藏,在国内外产生了非常广泛的影响。王琦的艺术历程一直与现代中国的命运息息相关,他的版画创作大致可以分为三个时期:1938年——1949年的战争时期,1949年——1976年的新中国社会主义建设时期,以及1976年——1988年的改革开放时期。其后至今,王琦的艺术创作主要以水墨画和书法为主。《晚归》是王琦在新中国社会主义建设时期的版画代表作,也是他农业题材的代表作,亦可视为其一生的重要代表作之一。王琦的其他版画代表作品还有《石工》(1945年)、《售余粮》(1953年)、《雪原峡谷》(1964年)、《朝霞映船台》(1975年)、《人民万岁》(1978年)、《古墙老藤》(1987年)、《都市交响曲》(1987年)等。原文载于中央美术学院艺术资讯网编辑|郑丽君 ...More

高士明:解放的艺术——策展作为行动之书 ...

2019-06-26 10 people interested

行动是为了什么?为的是让这个社会动起来,让被锁定在各自社会阶层、各个历史阶段、各个关系单元中的这些个体,能够催生出一种自我更新和社会更新的可能性。在这个意义上,艺术不是拜物的艺术,而是解放的艺术,而策展是一部变乱之书、行动之书。 ...More
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